INDONESIA (Syllabus: GS Paper 1 – Geography)

News-CRUX-10     19th February 2024        

Context: The Prime Minister of India recently congratulated the people of Indonesia on the successful Presidential elections and the newly-elected President Prabowo Subianto.


  • About: Indonesia is a country located off the coast of mainland Southeast Asia in the Indian and Pacific oceans.
  • It is an archipelago that lies across the Equator and spans a distance equivalent to one-eighth of Earth’s circumference.
  • Archipelagic Nature and Size: Indonesia is the world’s largest island country with more than 17,000 islands. Its vast expanse covers a significant portion of the Earth's surface.
  • Population and Demographics: Indonesia boasts the 4th largest population in the world.

oIt holds the distinction of having the highest Muslim population of any country globally.

  • Historical and Cultural Ties with India: India and Indonesia have shared two millennia of close cultural and commercial contacts.

oThe exchange of Hindu, Buddhist, and later Muslim faiths between India and Indonesia has played a significant role in shaping Indonesia's cultural landscape.

  • Land boundaries with several countries.

oPapua New Guinea, East Timor and Malaysia

  • It also shares maritime boundaries with:

oSingapore, Philippines, Vietnam, Palau and Australia.

  • Major Mountains: Mount Kerinci (Sumatra), Mount Rinjani (Lombok), Mount Semeru (Java), Mount Lawu (Java) and Mount Merbabu (Java)
  • Major Active Volcanoes: Mount Merapi (Java), Mount Semeru (Java), Mount Krakatoa (Sunda Strait), Mount Tambora (Sumbawa) and Mount Agung (Bali).
  • Major islands: Sunda Islands, Greater Sunda Islands, Java, Sumatra, Borne, Sulawesi, Bali, Lombok and New Guinea.