HYBRID SEEDS (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Agriculture)

News-CRUX-10     28th September 2023        

Context: Hybrid seeds are becoming increasingly popular in India.

  • The quicker harvest quality of hybrid seeds gives farmers a window to sow short-duration crops, such as potatoes, between two crop cycles.

Hybrid Seeds

  • They are produced by controlled cross-pollination between different varieties of the same plant.
  • F1 hybrid: It is a first-generation hybrid, which means that the seeds came from the cross-pollination of two parent plants from two different “pure” lines.

oThe origin of hybrids can be traced to India’s Green Revolution in the 1960s.

  • Nature of hybrid seeds: They are quite sensitive to temperature and rain. For instance, a hybrid variety of paddy requires rainfall within 15-20 of sowing.
  • Primary Producer of Hybrid Seeds: Bihar, Uttar Pradesh,  Punjab and Haryana
  • Haryana now grows a lot of hybrid bajra (pearl millet).
  • Some of the Hybrid seed varieties: Wheat - Sonalika and Kalyan Sona, Rice - Jaya and Ratna and Cowpea - Pusa Komal.

Hybrid Seeds (Pros and Cons)

  • Pros: Increased Yield, diseases resistance, improved quality and high nutrition, faster maturity, increased profitability.
  • Cons: High cost, dependency, limited genetic diversity, ethical concerns, environmental impacts etc.