HUMAN AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     22nd June 2024        
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Context: Chad has become the first country in 2024, and the 51st globally, to eliminate the gambiense form of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), a neglected tropical disease.

Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT)

  • About: is a vector-borne parasitic disease.
  • Also known as: Sleeping Sickness
  • Caused by: Protozoan parasites transmitted by infected tsetse flies.
  • Forms of human African trypanosomiasis

oTrypanosoma brucei gambiense: This causes over 90% of all trypanosomiasis cases. It is found in 24 countries of west and central Africa.

oTrypanosoma brucei rhodesiense: This causes less than 10% of all trypanosomiasis cases. It is found in 13 countries of eastern and southern Africa.

  • Symptoms: Early symptoms include swollen bumps around the bite, a fever, and muscle and joint pain.
  • Treatment: Treatment depends on what type of protozoa caused the infection and whether the infection has spread to other areas of your body.