GENOME SEQUENCING (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 - Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     6th December 2023        
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Context: Recently, the Bhopal-based Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER Bhopal) achieved a significant milestone by completing the first-ever genome sequencing of the Jamun tree (Syzygium cumini), an evergreen tree popular in India for its medicinal properties.

Genome Sequencing

  • About: Genome sequencing is the method focused on deciphering the precise order of base pairs in an individual.
  • Deciphering the Genome: The essence of sequencing lies in the "deciphering" or reading of the genome.
  • Cost Variations: The costs associated with sequencing vary depending on the methods used for reading or the level of accuracy emphasized in decoding the genome.
  • Need for Genome Sequencing: Since the initial sequencing of the human genome in 2003, it has provided a new understanding of the connection between diseases and the distinctive genetic composition of each person. 
  • Over 10,000 diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and thalassemia, have been identified as stemming from the malfunction of a single gene.

Why Choose Jamun?

  • Jamun is the largest genome to be sequenced from the Syzygium genus. 
  • It is tempting to speculate that the adaptive evolution of major plant secondary metabolism pathways in S. cumini species confers unprecedented antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacological properties of this tree.
  • The whole genome sequence of S. cumini will facilitate future genomic, evolutionary, and ecological studies on the world’s largest tree genus
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