GAGANYAAN MISSION (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     5th February 2024        

Context: Woman Robot Astronaut "Vyommitra" will fly into Space ahead of ISRO's ambitious “Gaganyaan" mission, which will be India’s first human manned Space Flight carrying Indian Astronauts into Space.

Gaganyaan Mission

  • About: Gaganyaan project envisages demonstration of human spaceflight capability by launching a crew of 3 members to an orbit of 400 km for a 3 days mission and bring them back safely to earth.
  • Expected Launch: In 2025)
  • It is part of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme (IHSP), which was initiated (2007) by the ISRO to develop the technology needed to launch crewed orbital spacecraft into low earth orbit (LEO).
  • Launch Vehicle: GSLV Mk-lll (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) the three-stage heavy-lift launch vehicle will be used for carrying the orbital module.

oIndia’s heaviest rocket consists of solid stage, liquid stage and cryogenic stage.

  • Objective: To demonstrate the capability to send humans to low earth orbit on board an Indian launch vehicle and bring them back to earth safely.


  • About: It is a spacefaring humanoid, is currently under development by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) for deployment on the Gaganyaan spacecraft.
  • Humanoid Essentials: A humanoid, by definition, is a robot designed to resemble a human being in appearance.
  • Half-Humanoid Design: Vyommitra, named after combining "vyoma" (space) and "mitra" (friend), is often referred to as a half-humanoid due to its structure, featuring a head, two hands, and a torso, but lacking lower limbs.
  • Functional Anatomy: Like all robots, the capabilities of a humanoid are determined by the computer systems to which it is connected, shaping its overall functionality.
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