G-33 COUNTRIES (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – IR)

News-CRUX-10     27th February 2024        
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Context: Ahead of the 13th ministerial conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), a majority of the G-33 countries have called for a permanent solution to public stockholding for food security.

G-33 Countries

  • About: The G33, also known as the Friends of Special Products in agriculture, constitutes a coalition primarily comprising developing and least developed countries.
  • Membership: Despite its name, the G33 boasts 47 member nations, showcasing a diverse representation. Key countries include India, China, Indonesia, Pakistan, Nigeria, Philippines, Turkey, Tanzania, Kenya, and South Korea.
  • Establishment and Purpose: Formed before the 2003 Cancun ministerial conference, the G33 emerged to coordinate efforts during the Doha Round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, with a primary focus on agricultural matters.
  • Defensive Posture and Dominance: India's dominance within the group underscores its "defensive" stance concerning agriculture in WTO negotiations. The G33 aims to curtail the level of market opening demanded of developing nations.
  • Advocacy for Special Measures: The G33 advocates for the implementation of a "special products" exemption, enabling developing countries to exclude specific products from tariff reductions. Moreover, it pushes for a "special safeguard mechanism," allowing tariff hikes in response to sudden import surges.
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