EXPANSION OF NATO (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – IR)

News-CRUX-10     25th January 2024        
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Context: Turkey's parliament ratifies Sweden's NATO membership bid, clearing the biggest remaining hurdle to expanding the Western military alliance.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

  • About: NATO is an Intergovernmental political & military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty signed in 1949.
  • Headquarter: Brussels, Belgium
  • Objective: Formed to ensure collective security in Western Europe and in response to deteriorating relations between the US and the USSR after World War II (cold war period).
  • Members: 31 countries 
  • Article 10: It sets out how countries can join the Alliance. It states that membership is open to any "European State in a position to further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area".
  • Collective Defence: Attack against one or several of its members is considered as an attack against all. 
  • Political: NATO promotes democratic values and enables members to consult and cooperate on defence and security-related issues to solve problems, build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict.
  • Military: NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military power to undertake crisis-management operations.
  • Sweden: It is one of five members of the European Union that are not members of NATO. 

o     Sweden joined the Partnership for Peace on 9 May 1994.

  • Finland: which has a 1,340km (832 mile) land border with Russia - became a Nato member in April 2023.