DISPLACEMENT IN CONGO (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – IR)

News-CRUX-10     8th November 2023        
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Context: Recently, the UN International Organization of Migration (IOM) reported that the number of people who have been internally displaced in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has risen to 6.9 million.


Conflict in the DRC

  • The conflict in the DRC dates back to the 1990s when it went through two civil wars in 1996 and 1998. 
  • The conflict erupted in the wake of the Rwandan genocide in 1994 where ethnic Hutu extremists killed nearly one million minority Tutsis and non­-extremist Hutus. 
  • Following the Rwandan genocide, around two million Hutu refugees crossed Rwanda into North Kivu and South Kivu provinces of DRC. 
  • They organized ethnic militias in DRC fearing prosecution. 
  • The multiple rebel groups and several actors fighting in the region have carried out widespread killing, sexual violence and massive human rights atrocities.


Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

  • Situated: Central Africa. It is the second-largest country in Africa and is known for its vast natural resources, including minerals and a significant portion of the Congo rainforest.
  • Border shared with: North by the Central African Republic and South Sudan; to the east by Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania; to the southeast by Zambia; and to the southwest by Angola.
  • River: Congo River.
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