COP 28 ON TROPICAL DISEASE (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – Health)

News-CRUX-10     4th December 2023        
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Context: Recently, at the U.N. climate summit, The United Arab Emirates and several charities pledged $777 million in financing to combat neglected tropical diseases, which are anticipated to escalate with rising temperatures.

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)

  • About: NTDs are a diverse group of tropical infections that are common in low-income populations in developing regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
  • Caused by: Pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and parasitic worms.
  • 13 neglected Tropical Diseases: ascariasis, Buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trachoma, and trichuriasis.
  • Dominant Regions: They are common in low-income populations in developing regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
  • India: India has the world's largest absolute burden of at least 10 major NTDs, including hookworm, dengue, lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar and rabies.
  • Last year, Togo became the first African country to eliminate four neglected tropical diseases.


Government Initiatives

  • Preventive Methods: It involve the periodic deployment of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) rounds in endemic areas, providing free-of-cost medicines to at-risk communities.
  • Vector-Control Measures: Include the undertaking of Indoor Residual Spraying rounds in endemic areas to prevent sandfly breeding.
  • National Center for Vector-Borne Diseases Control (NCVBDC): It strives for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases, namely Malaria, Japanese Encephalitis, Dengue, Chikungunya, Kala-azar, and Lymphatic Filariasis.
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