Chandrayaan-4 (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     8th March 2024        

Context: ISRO is gearing up for the next lunar mission ‘Chandrayaan-4’, to build on the accomplishments of Chandrayaan-3 mission (2023) while attempting more complex objectives.


  • Aim: The primary objective is to land on the Moon and return rocks and soils (lunar regolith) to India for analysis.
  • Spacecraft Modules: Consists of 5 modules including a lander, rover, propulsion module, descender module, ascender module, and transfer module.

oPropulsion Module: Guides Chandrayaan-4 in lunar orbit before separation, similar to Chandrayaan-3.

oDescender Module: Facilitates the lunar landing process, akin to the Vikram lander on Chandrayaan-3.

oAscender Module: Responsible for collecting and storing lunar samples before ejecting from the lander to begin the return journey.

oTransfer Module: Grabs the ascender module, leaves lunar orbit, and heads back to Earth before detaching the capsule with the rock and soil samples.

oRe-entry Module: Capsule carrying the lunar regolith that will undergo re-entry and land on Earth for further analysis.

  • Two Separate Launches: Chandrayaan-4 is the first mission involving 2 launch vehicles to complete a single mission.
  • Launch Vehicles: LVM-3 launches with 3 components (Propulsion Module, Descender Module, Ascender Module).

oPolar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) launches the Transfer Module and the Re-entry Module.