News-CRUX-10     20th July 2023        
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Context: India has voiced support for the U.N.'s efforts in continuing the Black Sea Grain initiative, a day after Russia announced it was terminating implementation
of the U.N.-brokered deal that allowed export of grain and related foodstuffs and fertilisers from Ukrainian ports.

Black Sea Grain Initiative

About: The Initiative on the Safe Transportation of Grain and Foodstuffs from Ukrainian ports, also called the Black Sea Grain Initiative, was an agreement between Russia and Ukraine with Turkey and the United Nations (UN) made during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Origin: The deal, brokered by the United Nations and Turkey, was signed in Istanbul in July 2022.
  • Initially it was stipulated for a period of 120 days with an option to extend or terminate after November.
Mirror agreement: It was not a direct agreement between Russia and Ukraine.
  • Instead, Ukraine signed an agreement with Turkey and the UN, and Russia signed a separate "mirror" agreement with Turkey andthe UN.
Objectives: The deal was to provide for a safe maritime humanitarian corridor for Ukrainian exports (particularly for food grains) from three of its key ports: Chornomorsk, Odessa and Yuzhny/Pivdennyi.
  • Ukraine is among the largest exporters of wheat, maize, rapeseed, sunflower seeds and sunflower oil, globally.
  • Its access to the deep-sea ports in the Black Sea enables it to directly approach Russia and Europe along with grain importers from West Asia and North Africa.
  • Russia’s actions in the East European country had disturbed this route which earlier used to ship 75% of its agricultural exports - precisely what the initiative sought to address
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