ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 - Health)

News-CRUX-10     26th August 2023        
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Context: Indian small and medium companies stepping into antibiotic development are hindered by enormous challenges. 

  • But they can play an important role in rejuvenating the global pipeline if their concerns are addressed, experts said at a global webinar organised by Delhi-based think tank Centre for Science and Environment (CSE).

Antibiotic resistance

    • Antibiotic resistance is a silent pandemic impacting health, livelihoods and economies. 
    • Antibiotics are becoming ineffective and treatment options are reducing. In 2019, about five million deaths were associated with it.
  • Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death. 
  • AMR occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes.
  • Antimicrobial-resistant organisms are found in people, animals, food, plants and the environment (in water, soil and air). 
  • They can spread from person to person or between people and animals, including from food of animal origin.
  • The main drivers of antimicrobial resistance include the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials, lack of access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for both humans and animals, poor infection and disease prevention and control in healthcare facilities and farms, poor access to quality, affordable medicines, vaccines and diagnostics, lack of awareness and knowledge, and lack of enforcement of legislation. 
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