Mains Marks Booster     3rd August 2023        
output themes

According to the Census, 2011, the population of women is around 48 % which signifies the importance of empowering women. 

Issues faced by Women

  • Patriarchal norms and values: It often lead to unequal treatment of women in many areas including education, employment, and access to resources.
  • Restricted Mobility: In some areas, women face restrictions on their ability to move freely, which can limit their access to education, healthcare, and employment.
  • Economic Dependency: Due to societal norms, many women are dependent on their husbands or families for economic support.
  • Inheritance Rights: Despite legal provisions, many women do not have equal inheritance rights as their male counterparts due to deeply rooted social customs.
  • Gender inequality: Women often face discrimination and unequal treatment in various aspects of life, including education, employment, healthcare, and political participation.
  • Violence against women: Violence against women is a grave concern worldwide that includes physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, domestic violence, sexual harassment, human trafficking, and harmful traditional practices like female genital mutilation and child marriage.
  • Reproductive health and rights: Issues such as lack of access to reproductive healthcare, inadequate family planning services, maternal mortality, and restrictions on reproductive choices and autonomy pose significant challenges to women's well-being.
  • Political underrepresentation: The gender gap in political representation limits women's influence in shaping policies and agendas that affect their lives and rights.
  • Social and cultural norms: Practices such as child marriage, dowry, honour killings, and gender-based discrimination reinforce gender roles and limit women's opportunities for personal development and self-expression.
  • Health disparities: Women may face specific health challenges and disparities, including reproductive health issues, maternal mortality, limited access to healthcare services, and gender-based violence.
  • Intersectionality: Women from marginalized and disadvantaged groups, such as women of colour, indigenous women, LGBTQ+ women, women with disabilities, and migrant women, face additional layers of discrimination and unique challenges due to the intersection of gender with other forms of identity-based discrimination.

Case Study: Women's Representation in Nagaland:

This case study explores women's representation in Nagaland, highlighting achievements in education and empowerment, as well as challenges in political participation.

Key Findings:

  • Education and Empowerment: High Female School Attendance: Over 85% of Nagaland women over the age of 5 attended school, surpassing India's average of 72%.
  • Delayed Marriages: Less than 6% of Nagaland women aged 20-24 were married before 18, compared to the national average of 23%.
  • Lower Anaemia Rates: Only 29% of Nagaland women were anaemic, lower than the national average.

Women's Political Representation:

  • Historic Underrepresentation: Nagaland has not elected a woman MLA in the 14 Assembly elections held between 1964 and 2018.
  • Recent Progress: In the 2023 election, Nagaland elected its first two women MLAs, Hekani Jakhalu and Salhoutuonuo Kruse, representing the Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party (NDPP).

Steps taken by Government for Women Empowerment 

Initiatives and Programs



Working Women Hostel


Provide safe accommodation and day-care facilities for working women

Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women


Empower women with skills for gainful employment

National Commission of Women


Review constitutional safeguards, recommend measures, assist with grievance redressal, advise on policy matters

National health programs


Address maternal healthcare needs through programs like NRHM and Family Welfare Programme

National Mission for Empowerment of Women


Convergence of schemes and programs to holistically empower women

Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation Programme


Address anaemia among adolescent girls and boys

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Yojana


Create awareness, improve welfare services, and address declining Child Sex Ratio

Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana


Savings scheme specifically for the girl child



Online marketing platform for women entrepreneurs, SHGs, and NGOs

Mahila Shakti Kendra


Empower rural women with skill development, digital literacy, employment, health, and nutrition

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojna


Maternity Benefit Programme implemented in sync with the National Food Security Act



Provide basic needs for women in distress

Project Stree Swabhiman


Sustainable model for providing affordable sanitary products in rural areas

Nari Portal


Mission Mode Project for women empowerment

Universalisation of Women Helpline (Dial 181)


Provide 24x7 emergency/non-emergency response to women affected by violence


Addressing the issues related to women requires a comprehensive approach involving legal and policy reforms, gender-responsive programming, awareness campaigns, education and empowerment initiatives, and efforts to challenge and change harmful social norms and stereotypes. It is crucial to promote gender equality, women's rights, and ensure equal opportunities for all women to thrive and contribute to society.