Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Mains Marks Booster     5th August 2023        
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An HEV utilizes both an internal combustion engine (ICE), such as a petrol or diesel engine, and one or more electric motors to operate. It can be powered solely by the electric motor, which draws energy from stored batteries, or by the ICE, or a combination of both.

Types of HEV

Regenerative Braking System (RBS)

  • RBS utilizes various methods for energy recovery. A kinetic system captures energy lost during braking and uses it to recharge the high-voltage battery. 
  • An electric system generates electricity through a motor during sudden braking. A hydraulic system stores the vehicle's kinetic energy in pressurized tanks, offering a high energy recovery rate suitable for heavy vehicles.

Key Advantages

  • Fuel Efficiency: Hybrid vehicles with this technology offer superior fuel efficiency, increased power, and reduced emissions.
  • Increased Mileage: Hybrid vehicle design, featuring smaller engines and lighter weight compared to ICE vehicles, leads to improved mileage, meeting the demand for such vehicles.
  • Instant Torque: HEVs deliver instant torque and maintain high torque even at low speeds due to the overall increase in power and torque.
  • Transition in the Auto Industry: Rising fossil fuel prices, clean mobility solutions, and strict government emission controls are driving the EV market.

Challenges for Hybrid Technology


  • Higher Cost: HEVs' higher price is a problem in India and other cost-sensitive markets. ICE-only vehicles are cheaper than battery-powered ones. HEVs cost more due to the RBS.
  • Infrastructure Limitations: India still faces obstacles in its journey toward a fully electric ecosystem, such as inadequate infrastructure and a lack of high-performing EVs.
  • Robust Manufacturing Ecosystem: EV revolution challenges include a weak manufacturing ecosystem for EV-related materials and supply chain concentration in specific regions.


SHEVs help reduce fossil fuel use, carbon emissions, and pollution. They also create a local EV parts manufacturing ecosystem. HEVs protect significant investments and jobs in ICE parts manufacturing, ensuring a smooth and fast transition to new technologies. SHEVs and BEVs share electric powertrain components, enabling local manufacturing and accelerating their adoption. This synergy lowers SHEV and BEV costs, making electrified vehicles viable.