Ground Water

Mains Marks Booster     5th August 2023        
output themes
  • Groundwater is a hidden resource which accounts for 62% of total water and 30% of freshwater on earth.
  • Groundwater is the backbone of India's agriculture and water Security in rural and urban areas.
  • Nearly 80% of country's drinking water need satisfied by GW.
  • It fulfils almost 2/3rd the need for irrigation.

Groundwater resources in India: challenges 

  • Unregulated extraction- Availability of cheap electricity shifted farmers’ dependency from surface water to groundwater. For instance, of the total irrigated area in Punjab, only 26.2% is irrigated by surface water. 
  • Declining water tables- Data by CGWB- 30% of Wells have reported decline in GW level mostly in range 0-2 m.
  • Groundwater pollution- Water quality data obtained by the Central Ground Water Board shows that groundwater in as many as 154 districts across 21 states has arsenic contamination. 
  • Excessive Withdrawal for Irrigation- Irrigation alone accounts for 87% of the total groundwater used in India today. 
  • Inadequacy of data on groundwater resources lead to difficulty in groundwater management. 

Solution to groundwater depletion in India 

    • Promote sustainable agriculture practices such as drip irrigation, crop rotation, and use of organic fertilizers. 
    • Promote rainwater harvesting to recharge groundwater resources.
    • Improve monitoring and regulation by setting up a centralized database of groundwater resources, implementing stricter regulations on drilling of new wells, and imposing penalties for over-extraction of groundwater.
    • Increase investment in water conservation and management technologies such as water-efficient irrigation systems, desalination plants, and water recycling systems.
    • Raise awareness through campaigns to educate people about the importance of conserving groundwater resources. 

Initiatives taken by government:

By implementing these measures, India can ensure sustainable use of its groundwater resources and prevent further depletion. It is important for the government to take immediate action to address this issue before it becomes a major crisis.

Amrit Sarovar Mission
Amrit Sarovar Mission

  • Mission Amrit Sarovar was launched on 24th April, 2022 in the 75th year of Independence as a part of ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’.
  • Objective: 
    • To construct/ rejuvenate at least 75 Amrit Sarovars in each district across the country and to overcome the water crisis in rural areas of the country.
    • A target of construction of 50,000 Amrit Sarovars was set to be completed by 15th August, 2023.
  • ‘Jan Bhagidari’ has been the core of this Mission and involves people’s participation at all levels.