Offsetting headwinds:
  • Meaning: It refers to the actions taken to counter or mitigate challenges, obstacles, or negative factors (referred to as "headwinds") that are affecting economic situation.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Fighting challenges like inflation, de-globalisation, impacts of disasters, lack of infrastructure, uncertainty and failure of global supply chain, corruption, Etc.
City centric to airshed-centric air quality management:
  • Meaning: City-Centric Air Quality Management: The primary focus is on managing and monitoring air quality within the boundaries of individual cities or metropolitan areas.
  • Airshed-Centric Air Quality Management: It takes a more comprehensive view of air quality. It refers to a geographic area or region where the movement and dispersion of air pollutants are influenced by local topography, weather patterns, and sources of pollution.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Fighting air pollution (NCR region and Burning of agricultural residue), Smart cities, AMRUT, Urban transportation, Etc.
Personalisation of learning process:
  • Meaning: It refers to an educational approach that tailors the learning experience to the specific needs, interests, and abilities of individual learners.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Reforming education system in India, NEP 2020, Use of technology in education, SDG 4, Internationalisation of Indian Educational Institutes Etc.
Work for women’s economics:
  • Meaning: It refers to an educational approach that tailors the learning experience to the specific needs, interests, and abilities of individual learners.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Women in labour force, Increasing women participation in economics, Women empowerment and gender parity Etc.


Case studies on air pollution and its impacts:
  • Ecological studies in the UK and Europe: It found that like most other health events, air quality often exhibits a social gradient - higher deprivation indices and low economic position are usually linked with higher levels of pollutants such as particulate matter. 
  • Banning vehicles and impacts: Experience from other megacities such as Beijing, Jakarta and Mexico City suggest that sir quality is not significantly improved as various measures such as substitution to relatively older vehicles on restricted days and cover or borrow licence plates come into play.

Case study on demand of 70 hours of work in a week in India from youths:

  • Working hours tend to decrease when incomes rise and people can afford more things that they enjoy, including more leisure. 
  • In Germany, weekly working hours have reduced by about 59%, from 68 hours in 1870 to less than 28 hours in 2017. Japan had a 44-hour working week in 1961, the highest ever since 1950, which steadily decreased to less than 35 hours in 2017.


Key facts related to expenditure on R&D in India:
  • As per India Innovation Index 2021, produced by NITI Aayog: In 2018, India’s gross expenditure on research and development (GERD) as a percentage of GDP was 65%, one of the lowest in the world). This figure dipped further to 0.64% in 2020-21, according to the Department of Science and Technology (DST).
  • Private investment in R&D: The private sector’s share in the country’s R&D spending was 41% in 2020-21, a decline from 45% in 2012-13
  • Compared to that, the private sector’s share was 79% in Japan and Korea, 75% in the United States, and 67% in Germany and the UK. Even in China, the private sector’s share was 77%. 


Vice President’s speech:
  • On Artificial Intelligence (AI): “Artificial intelligence is one of the most significant production shift since industrial revolution and the world is near an inflection point.”


Supreme court (SC) judgements on application of international law in domestic use (Use in tax agreements/bilateral treaties between countries):
  • In PUCL vs India, Vishakha vs State of Rajasthan, and Puttaswamy vs Union of India:
  • The doctrine of dualism wherein international law is not enforceable domestically till it is transformed into municipal law through enabling legislation. 
  • The Supreme Court in these cases has moved away from this principle toward the monist tradition of incorporating international law in the domestic legal regime, even if it is not explicitly incorporated, provided the international law is not inconsistent with domestic law.


Solar Flares:
  • Definition: A solar flare is an intense burst of radiation coming from the release of magnetic energy associated with sunspots. Flares are our solar system’s largest explosive events. They are seen as bright areas on the sun and they can last from minutes to hours.
Lateral entry in Civil Services:
  • Definition: Lateral entry refers to the induction of private sector specialists in government departments. In 2018, the government decided to undertake lateral recruitment of joint secretaries to fulfil the twin purpose of bringing in domain expertise to the civil services and addressing the problem of shortage of IAS officers at the Centre.


Quote on War and Conflict: Freedom comes from human beings, rather than from laws and institutions”. – CLARENCE DARROW
  • Meaning: The quote underscores the idea that true freedom is not solely dependent on the existence of laws, regulations, or governmental institutions. Instead, it emphasizes that genuine freedom arises from the collective actions, values, and choices of individuals in society.
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