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From era of polarisation to era of reconciliation and Unity:
  • Meaning: Transitioning from an era of polarization to an era of reconciliation and unity signifies a significant shift in the societal, political, and cultural landscape. It signifies: Reduced division, dialogue and understanding, empathy and compassion etc.
  • Usage: It can be used as international footprint of brand India in– communalism and regionalism, hate speech and mob lynching, intolerance, migration and refugees, international collaboration etc.
Gender equality: Greatest human rights challenge of our time:
  • Meaning: It emphasizes that achieving gender equality is one of the most significant and pressing issues facing society in terms of human rights and social justice and reflects a call to action, urging societies to prioritize and actively work towards achieving gender equality as a fundamental human rights imperative that benefits everyone and contributes to a more equitable and just world.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - women empowerment and gender justice, women led development, inclusive and sustainable growth etc.

 From Industrial revolution to Technological revolution:

  • Meaning: Industrial Revolution: It was the transition from creating goods by hand to using machines.
  • Technological revolution: It is a period in which one or more technologies is replaced by another novel technology in a short amount of time.
  • Usage: It can be used as establishing/promoting ethos of equality in – Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life, Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nanotechnology, Bio-technology and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights, etc.

Universal literacy through Digital and Financial Literacy:

  • Meaning: It recognizes that modern society's success and inclusivity depend on ensuring that everyone has the skills and knowledge to thrive in an increasingly digital and interconnected world, while also making sound financial decisions that contribute to their well-being and overall quality of life.
  • Usage: It can be used questions related to - Education and skill, Digitization of education system, Digital India, Emerging technologies, Inclusive development, SDGs, Technological development, etc.

Success of the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) Scheme:
  • As per a recent report of WHO, titled “Estimating potential health gains from the Jal Jeevan Mission initiative”:
  • Averted diarrheal disease deaths across the country: Almost 4 lakhs.
  • Averted DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years): The universal coverage of safely managed drinking water in India, almost 14 million DALYs are estimated to be averted, resulting in estimated cost savings up to Rs 8 lakh Crore. 
  • Other benefits: It not only improves the health and socioeconomic condition of rural population especially women but also brings down the drudgery of rural women and girls (time saving).
Rural coverage of JJM: As of August, 2023, 5% rural households have been covered under JJM.


Male migration from rural to urban areas:
  • According to the Migration in India, 2020-21 report by NSSO”, the percentage of male migrants across states (irrespective of age) who migrated to urban areas by location of last usual place of residence in terms of rural areas is about 54%.
National Education Policy (NEP) and Total Expenditure on Education:
  • National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020) aims a substantial increase in public investment in education by both the Central government and all State Governments to reach 6% of GDP.
  • As per Analysis of Budgeted Expenditure on Education, total expenditure on education as percentage of GDP has shown increasing trend and for the year 2020-21 it is 4.64%.
Key facts of NFHS-5:
  • Rise in the level of anaemia: More than half of India’s women in the age group 15-49 years are reportedly anaemic.
  • Open defecation practice: It has reduced from 55% in 2005 to less than 20% in 2021.

Prime Minister’s Speech:
  • On vocal for local: The India of today is not just ‘Vocal for Local’ but also providing a global platform to take it to the world.
  • With the spirit of Vocal for Local, the citizens are buying indigenous products wholeheartedly and it has become a mass movement.

Minium Wage:
  • Definition: The International Labour Organization (ILO) has defined the term minimum wage as the lowest amount of remuneration that an employer is required to pay wage earners for the work performed during a given period, that cannot be reduced by collective agreement or an individual contract. 
No-Confidence Motion:
  • Definition: A no-confidence motion is a parliamentary tool used by the opposition to express its lack of confidence in the government.
  • In a parliamentary democracy, a government can be in power only if it commands a majority in the directly elected House.
  • Article 75(3) of our Constitution embodies the majority rule by specifying that the Council of Ministers are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha which is tested by a motion of no-confidence

Quote on Harmonious and equitable society: Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness” - MARTIN LUTHER KING JR
  • Meaning: The quote conveys a powerful message about the importance of pursuing freedom and justice in a positive and constructive manner.
  • It advises that the pursuit of freedom and justice should be guided by principles of peace, empathy, and moral integrity. It calls for a thoughtful and strategic approach that avoids perpetuating negativity and bitterness, ultimately leading to a more harmonious and equitable society.
Quote on Self-Realisation: I went in search of the evil, I found nobody is worse than me”. - Kabir
  • Meaning: The quote reflects a profound realization about self-awareness, introspection, and personal growth. It provides a powerful realization about the human condition—that each person has their own share of imperfections.
  • It emphasizes the importance of self-awareness, accountability, and the potential for growth and transformation through introspection and self-improvement.
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