Resilient, equitable, sustainable and inclusive (R-ESI) health systems:
  • Meaning: It represents a comprehensive approach to healthcare system development and improvement. It recognizes the need for healthcare systems to not only provide effective and accessible care but also to be adaptable in the face of challenges, promote fairness and social justice, use resources efficiently, and consider the needs of diverse populations.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - National Health Policy, 2017, Universal healthcare, PM – Ayushamaan Yojana, One health approach Etc.
Frontline functionaries:
  • Meaning: It refers to individuals or personnel who work directly at the forefront or the "frontlines" of various organizations or systems, particularly in the context of public services and government agencies.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - ASHA, Doctors and other healthcare workers, Police forces, Teachers, Gov. employees in civil services, Etc.
Ecological urbanisation:
  • Meaning: Also known as eco-urbanism, is an approach to urban planning and development that seeks to create and manage cities in a way that minimizes environmental impact, promotes sustainability, and integrates natural ecosystems into the urban environment.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Urbanisation, Smart cities, Pollution and urban areas, Urban flooding, Sponge cities, public transportation and mobility, waste management, Etc.
Barriers to our development:
  • Meaning: It refer to factors, conditions, or obstacles that hinder or impede the progress, growth, and improvement of individuals, communities, or nations. These barriers can vary widely and encompass economic, social, political, environmental, and cultural aspects.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – lack of infrastructure, lack of stability, lack of technology, mental barrier – lack of confidence, skill etc., Corruption, Naxalism and communalism,Etc.


Example of steps taken by countries to fight AMR (Anti-microbial resistance):
  • Indonesia has developed national surveillance plans,
  • Australia prioritised animal health and committed to reducing antibiotic use in livestock,
  • Brazil has shown reduction in antibiotic use in humans and
  • UK and the US are investing in research to develop new diagnostics, drugs and vaccines.
Case study on simultaneous election: Against the view that simultaneous election can lead to override of central view over state view (Benefit of Central Gov.):
  • Odisha: Odisha’s unique set-up of concurrent Lok Sabha and State Assembly elections demonstrates the electorate’s differentiated political choices. Odisha held simultaneous elections in 2019. Voters cast both their votes on the same day, but split their voting patterns. 


Kay facts related to India’s achievement in various sectors:
  • Bharat is the number one in digital transactions. Bharat leads in mobile manufacturing. Bharat is among the top three in the world of start-ups.




Road construction

12 kilometers of highways every day.

30 kilometers of highways every day

Metro rail connectivity 

5 cities

20 cities




Medical colleges



Villages covered under PM-Gram sadak Yojana

55% villages



Prime Minister’s speech:
  • On India’s growth: The journey of Bharat from 'Reshaping India' to 'Beyond Barriers' has laid the foundation for a bright future ahead. On this foundation, we will build a developed, grand, and prosperous Bharat.


Recommendation on use mixed member proportional (MMP) system over first post the past system:
  • India follows the first-past-the-post voting system, while New Zealand uses the mixed member proportional (MMP) system. It allows a voter to choose a candidate from a different party if they don’t like the local candidate from their preferred party. 
  • Benefits of MMP system:
  • It allows for more localised accountability for elected representatives.
  • Policy focus: As parties don’t need to concentrate on individual candidate winnability, they can emphasise on policies and ideologies to garner party votes.
  • Improves representation for women, indigenous communities, differently abled people, and other deprived groups. Ex: Before MMP’s introduction, New Zealand had only a 21% representation of women in 1993; now, 51% of MPs are women. 
  • It enhances democracy by letting voters express a diverse range of political preferences without wasting their votes.
  • It provides flexibility, allowing voters to select the best candidate-party combination according to their beliefs.


Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA):
  • Definition: Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted with three main objectives: To prevent and control money laundering, to confiscate and seize the property obtained from the laundered money; and to deal with any other issue connected with money laundering in India.
  • Definition: United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) defines biotechnology as “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific uses”. 
  • In simple words, it is the use of advances in molecular biology for applications in human and animal health, agriculture, environment, and specialty biochemical manufacturing.


Quote on Power: Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely”. – Lord Acton
  • Meaning: The quote conveys the idea that when individuals or entities acquire power, they have a tendency to become corrupted by it. The more power they have, the more likely they are to engage in corrupt or unethical behavior.
  • It warns about the dangers of unchecked power and the need for mechanisms to limit and monitor the exercise of authority to prevent corruption and abuse.