From moment of darkness to a brighter future:
  • Meaning: It conveys the idea of transitioning from a difficult or challenging period in one's life or in a broader context to a more hopeful and positive future.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - India after independence, food security and green revolution (food dependent to food exporter), transition from fragile five to top five economy, India’s growing role in international affairs Etc.
From climate polycrisis to polysolution: 
  • Meaning: It suggests a shift from the complex and multifaceted crisis or challenges associated with climate change (referred to as a "polycrisis") to a state or approach characterized by multiple solutions or a multitude of solutions (referred to as "polysolution").
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – climate change and its impacts, disaster management and steps taken like CDRI, sustainable development,  global cooperation and fight against global warming and environmental losses Etc.
From regulatory complexities to regulatory easing:
  • Meaning: This keyword represents a transition from a situation characterized by intricate, burdensome, or restrictive regulations to one where regulations are simplified, relaxed, or made more flexible.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – economic reforms, investment in India and trade or export, Make in India, Atmanirbhar bharat, good governance, single window clearance system Etc.
Motivational, inspirational and epicenters of change: 
  • Meaning: This refers to individuals, organizations, or places that serve as sources of motivation, inspiration, and catalysts for significant and transformative change in various aspects of life or society.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to refer (simply as epicentres of change) - Civil servants, executive, legislatures and judiciary, skill development and training institutions, UN and UNSC Etc.


Sports and its role in behavioural change in society:
  • Case: Civil rights movement in America.
  • Example: During the summer Olympic (1968), after the assassination of Martin Luther king, gold medallist Tommie Smith and bronze medallist John Carlos stepped up to the podium to receive their medals. Neither men was wearing shoes. Smith wore a black scarf around his neck and they bowed their heads and raised gloved fists. Their black socks and no shoes represented African-American poverty, while the gloves symbolized African-American strength and unity. That “Black power salute” of Smith and Carlos provided much fuel to the civil rights movement.


Climate change and its impacts on amphibians:
  • According to a study published in the Nature based on latest IUCN Red list assessment:
  • 41% of amphibian species worldwide are threatened with extinction.
  • Climate change was the primary threat for 39% of these species. Habitat destruction and degradation affect 93% of all threatened species, and continues to be the most common threat.
  • Of the assessed species in India, about 33% are found to be threatened. Over 70% of Indian amphibians are endemic.


Vice President’s speech:
  • On Civil Servants: You must be “motivational, inspirational and epicentres of change” as citizens look up to you as role models. You are the ‘foot soldiers of Bharat@2047’.
  • On corruption: The power corridors have been sanitised of power brokers.


Finance commission and recommendations on fiscal transfer:
  • 14th Finance Commission: Apart from taking the 1971 population, the Commission considered demographic changes since 1971. Thus, for the first time, the established practice of rewarding the southern States for controlling the population was replaced by awarding the populous States.
  • 15th Finance Commission: It openly declared taking the 2011 population in the distribution formula. With this, the southern States lost the advantage of getting some financial rewards and reduced financial transfers.


Carbon Accounting:  
  • Definition: Carbon accounting is the process of calculating and tracking the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions both produced and removed from the biosphere by an organization, institution or a nation as a whole.
First past the post election system:
  • Definition: The first-past-the-post (FPTP) system also known as the simple majority system, is an electoral system wherein voters cast a vote for a single candidate, and the candidate with the most votes wins the election in a constituency. 
  • This system is used in India in direct elections to the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies. 


Quote on Freedom of Press/Media: Our liberty depends on the freedom of the press, and that cannot be limited without being lost”. –  Thomas Jefferson
  • Meaning: The quote underscores the critical role that a free press plays in a democratic society. 
  • It suggests that the freedom of the press is essential for safeguarding liberty and that attempts to restrict or limit that freedom could lead to the erosion of individual freedoms and democracy itself.