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Cultural shift towards discipline:
  • Meaning: It refers to a change in the values, norms, and behaviors within a society or community that places a greater emphasis on self-control, order, and adherence to rules and norms. This shift suggests that there is a growing recognition and appreciation for discipline as a desirable trait or practice within the culture.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Governance - Civil services reforms, Ethics - Work culture and duty, financial responsibility and personal development Etc.
Strategic haves and have nots of the future:
  • Meaning: It refers to the emerging disparities in access to strategic resources, advantages, or capabilities that are expected to become increasingly significant in shaping the future. These disparities can have a profound impact on individuals, organizations, or nations in terms of their competitiveness, security, and influence in an evolving world.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions as – strategic haves and have nots in - Technology, cyber-security, Data, Defence and Security, quantum computing, space technology

 Fortify India’s position as ready, resurgent, and relevant stakeholder (3Rs):

  • Meaning: It suggests a strategy or goal for India to strengthen its role and influence in a particular context.
  • Ready: This indicates India's preparedness and ability to respond effectively to challenges or opportunities.
  • Resurgent: "Resurgent" suggests a revival or a resurgence of strength, influence, or activity.
  • Relevant: Being "relevant" means that India is considered important, applicable, and significant in the given context.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – India’s growth at the world level, G20, India’s soft power diplomacy (Yoga), India as a net security provider in the region Etc.
Technology as the biggest leveler:
  • Meaning: It expresses the idea that technology has the power to reduce or eliminate existing disparities, inequalities, or advantages in various aspects of life, society, or the world.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Grassroot democracy, awareness and participation of people through internet, inclusivity – DBT, Aadhaar, etc., Education and healthcare to all, Etc.


Example of new carbon capture and utilisation technology:
  • Technology: A new energy-efficient carbon dioxide capture technology that converts carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide under electro catalytic conditions under ambient temperatures in the presence of water has been developed.
  • Developed by: DST-supported National Centre of Excellence in Carbon Capture and Utilisation (NCoE-CCU) at IIT Bombay.
  • Usage of CO: It is a widely used chemical in the industry especially in the form of syn gas. In the steel industry, CO is an essential ingredient for converting iron ores to metallic iron in blast furnaces.


Air Pollution and Its Economic Impacts:
  • As per RBI’s report on Currency & Finance 2022-23: Up to 4.5% of India’s GDP could be at risk by 2030 due to lost labour hours from climate change issues, including extreme heat and humidity.
  • As per Lancet Planetary Health report (2021): It found that there is a large inter-state variations in economic loss as a proportion of the state GDP — from 0.67% to 2.15% — with the biggest losses in the low per-capita GDP states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh.
  • It highlighted six distinct ways of negative impacts: (i) lower labour productivity, (ii) lower consumer footfall, (iii)lower asset productivity, (iv)increased health expenses, (v) welfare losses, and (vi) premature mortality.   


Vice President’s speech:
  • On India’s role in World Affair: “Bharat as a leading global economy coupled with its phenomenal growth is a stabilising factor for global peace and harmony.”
  • On war and conflicts: Peace is not an option. It is the only way.


Supreme Court (SC) judgement on providing information of political candidates:
  • In People’s Union for Civil Liberties v Union of India (2003) and in Union of India v Association for Democratic Reforms (2002):
  • The Supreme Court mandated the ECI to obtain and disclose to the public, background information relating to candidates running for office, including information on their assets, criminal records, and educational background.
  • The Court ruled that the right to know about public officials is derived from the constitutional right to freedom of expression. 
Recommendation for alternative of electoral bonds and private political funding:
  • Public funding for political parties: This might not exceed ₹10,000 crore every five years, based on cumulative party collections as declared. It’s a small investment for the preservation of democracy.
  • Establish a National Election Fund: To which all donors could contribute. The funds could be allocated to parties based on their electoral performance. This would eliminate the so-called concern about donors’ reprisals.


Small Modular Nuclear Reactor:
  • Definition: Small modular reactors (SMRs) are advanced nuclear reactors that have a power capacity of up to 300 MW(e) per unit, which is about one-third of the generating capacity of traditional nuclear power reactors. 
Green Engineering:
  • Definition: Green engineering is the design, commercialization, and use of processes and products in a way that reduces pollution, promotes sustainability, and minimizes risk to human health and the environment without sacrificing economic viability and efficiency.


Quote on Power: Power conceded nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will”. – Fredrick Douglass
  • Meaning: The quote emphasizes that those in positions of power are unlikely to willingly give up their power or make significant concessions unless they are compelled to do so by the demands, actions, or pressure of those seeking change.
  • In other words, it suggests that if people want to challenge and change an existing power structure or bring about social, political, or economic reforms, they must actively and persistently demand their rights and push for change.
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