Building local confidence in the system:
  • Meaning: It refers to the process of establishing trust and reliability in a particular system or technology at a localized or community level. It's an important step in ensuring that a system is accepted and beneficial to the people it serves.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Grass-root democracy and PRIs, Inclusive and participatory governance, social audit and citizen charters, 5th and 6th schedule, good governance Etc.

 From centralization of power to devolution/decentralisation of power:

  • Meaning: It represents a change in the way authority and decision-making are distributed within a government or organization. Devolution or decentralization is the process of transferring some degree of decision-making authority, administrative responsibility, and resources from a central authority to lower-level entities, such as local governments, regions, or departments.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Centre-state relations and federalism, autocratic government to democratic government, 73rd and 74th AA (PRIs), grassroot democracy (participatory governance), Etc.

 4Fs of global challenges: Food, fuel, fertilizer and financial inequality:

  • Meaning: This represents a set of interconnected global challenges that touch on food security, energy sustainability, agricultural practices, and socio-economic disparities. Addressing these challenges is crucial for the well-being of the global population and the health of the planet.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – food security, global challenges at present, transition towards renewable source of energy, War and conflicts, Migration and issue of refugee, economic inequality Etc.

The next wave of innovations (From states/cities):

  • Meaning: This refers to the upcoming or anticipated developments and advancements in technology, products, services, or ideas that are expected to have a significant impact on various industries, fields, or aspects of life. It suggests that a new phase of creative and groundbreaking solutions is on the horizon.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to refer – Make in India, R&D, critical technologies, Industry 4.0, Evergreen and second green revolution, one district, one product Etc.


Step taken in education to track literacy and dropout rates:
  • Step taken: Automated Permanent Academic Account Registry (APAAR) ID or ‘One nation, One Student ID’ initiative.
  • What? It is a special ID system for all students in India, starting from childhood.
  • Goal: To make education hassle-free and reduce the need for students to carry physical documents.
  • Aim: To allow state governments to track literacy rates, dropout rates, and more, helping them make improvements.


Green Hydrogen and Renewable energy in India:
  • Challenge in green hydrogen production: India’s National Green Hydrogen Mission, piloted by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) expects to manufacture 5MT by 2030. This would require the installation of renewable energy capacity worth 125 GW and equivalent to about 13% of India’s present electricity generation.
  • India’s total renewable energy (RE) capacity: As of August 2023, (excluding hydropower dams bigger than 25 MW) stood at 131 GW.


President’s speech:
  • On 4th Industrial Revolution: We are living in exciting times and this is the age of the fourth Industrial Revolution.
  • On peace and harmony: To promote peace and harmony in the society, it is necessary to understand the importance of tolerance, respect for each other and harmony.


Check and Balances:
  • Definition: Checks and balances is a system of government in which different branches or institutions have separate and distinct powers and areas of authority, and each branch is designed to limit or check the powers of the other branches. The aim is to prevent any one branch or part of government from becoming too powerful, abusive, or authoritarian.
Climate tipping points:
  • Definition: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines tipping points as “critical thresholds in a system that, when exceeded, can lead to a significant change in the state of the system, often with an understanding that the change is irreversible.”


Quote on idea of seeing the broader perspective: The breaking of a wave cannot explain the whole sea”. – VLADIMIR NABOKOV
  • Meaning: The quote conveys the idea that a small, isolated event or observation is insufficient to fully comprehend a complex and intricate system or phenomenon. In this context, it signifies the limitations of trying to understand a larger, more intricate issue based solely on a single, small aspect of it.
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