From spurts of growth to sustained growth:

  • Meaning: It refers to the transition of an entity, such as a business or country’s economy from experiencing occasional bursts of progress to achieving continuous and steady development over an extended period.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – India’s economic growth, India as $5trillion economy, Developed nation by 2047, three sectors of the economy – agriculture, manufacturing & services etc.
Enhancing performance, productivity and profitability (3Ps): 
  • Meaning: Enhancing performance, productivity, and profitability, often referred to as the "3Ps," are the key elements which are interrelated and essential for achieving sustainable development and remaining competitive in the sector.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – agricultural sector, cooperative societies, MSMEs and unorganized sector, manufacturing etc.
From the ‘take-make-dispose’ to ‘reduce-reuse-recycle’ model:
  • Meaning: Take-make-dispose: It means that raw materials are collected, then transformed into products that are used until they are finally discarded as waste.
  • Reduce-reuse-recycle: It means: Reduce the amount of waste, Reuse items as much as you can before replacing and Recycle items wherever possible.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – urban development, Smart City, Circular economy, Conservation of nature, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment, Disaster and Disaster Management, etc.
Triple planetary crisis: Climate change, pollution, and biodiversity loss: 
  • Meaning: It refers to the interconnected and escalating challenges posed by climate change, pollution, and biodiversity loss. 
  • These three crises are closely related and together have significant implications for the health of our planet and all life on it.
  • Usage: Environmental Pollution and Degradation (climate change and global warming), Environmental Impact Assessment, Circular Economy, Green Energy Transition, Conservation, Disaster and Disaster Management, etc.

Social security for elderly:
  • Atal Vayo Abhyuday Yojana (AVYAY): An umbrella scheme, includes components to provide financial security, healthcare, nutrition, shelter, welfare etc. for senior citizens.
  • Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojna (RVY): Assisted living devices are distributed free of cost, in camp mode, to senior citizens belonging to the families living below the poverty line.
  • Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS): Monthly pension at the rate of Rs.200/per month per beneficiary to elderly persons in the age group of 60-79 years (increases above 80) belonging to Below Poverty Line (BPL)
  • National Programme for Health Care of the Elderly (NPHCE), 2010-11: To provide dedicated healthcare services to senior citizens at various level of State Health Care delivery system i.e., at Primary, Secondary and Tertiary health care, including outreach services.
  • Elderly population in India: Census Report-2011, population of senior citizens is about 8.5% of the total population of the country. 
  • National Commission on Population’s Report (2011-2036): It states that population of senior citizens in 2036 will be about 15% of the total population of India.
  • Significan

Challenges with the PM-JAY (Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana): 
  • According to official data of PMJAY, nearly a third (33%) of hospitals empaneled under Ayushman Bharat are inactive.
Gig workers in India:
  • Informal work makes up the majority (more than 90%) of jobs in India. 
  • GOI’s jobs data for 2021-22 shows that 53% of urban workers were classified as casual labour or self-employed.
  • Niti Aayog estimates more than 23 million people will be a part of it by the end of the decade.

Prime Minister’s Speech: 
  • On Aspirational District Programme: It can help in assisting the countries of the Global South in their developmental trajectory.
  • On Mission LiFE (Lifestyle for environment): The issue of climate change can be tackled effectively by lifestyle change by everyone.

Justice Verma committee on sexual harassment of women: 
  • It recommended for the addition of section 376F (of the Indian Penal Code) defining breach of command responsibility resulting in sexual violence. 
  • This failure of public servants in command, control or supervision to prevent or repress the commission of sexual violence be named as a penal offence.
  • When public servants fail to perform their duty, the burden must not lie on victims of mass violence to furnish proof for such impunity.

Due process of law: 
  • Definition: Due process of law contained in the America constitution determines whether a law is valid by examining both its procedural and substantive characteristics.
  • The judiciary has the power to determine the laws' procedural adequacy as well as its intention.
  • Procedure Established by Law: It is a Doctrine mentioned in British constitution that does not assess whether the laws made by the legislature or by the concerned authority is fair, just and not arbitrary.
  • The judiciary's role is limited to evaluating the procedure used by the legislature to enact the law in question.
  • In India: Article 21 of the constitution states that "No person shall be deprived of his life and personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law".
  • Definition: United Nations Refugee Convention 1951 defines the ‘refugee’ as:
  • “Someone who is unable or unwilling to return to their country of origin owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion.”
  • India’s Status: India is not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol.

Quote on Individual development: “All that is valuable in human society depends upon the opportunity for development accorded the individual” - ALBERT EINSTEIN

  • Meaning: The quote highlights the critical role that individual development plays in shaping the overall progress and prosperity of society. 
  • It emphasizes that the well-being and achievements of a society are intricately linked to the opportunities and support provided to its members to grow and reach their full potential.
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