output themes


From shrinking space to fostering open and inclusive discussions:
  • Meaning: It implies a shift or transformation from a situation where opportunities for open and inclusive discussions are becoming limited or restricted ("shrinking space") to one where efforts are made to encourage and promote such discussions that involve diverse voices and perspectives ("fostering open and inclusive discussions").
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Democratic functioning and decreasing productivity, Majority vs Minority, Communalism, hate speech and mob lynching, Autocracy to Democracy, Democratic and Social justice, International cooperation Etc.
Expanding the economic and education pie:
  • Meaning: It signifies increasing opportunities, resources, or access in both the economic and educational domains. It suggests efforts to make these aspects of society larger and more inclusive.
  • In the economic context, it means creating more wealth, jobs, and opportunities for individuals or groups, thereby increasing their economic well-being.
  • In the educational context, it refers to broadening access to education and improving the quality of educational opportunities.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Government schemes and policies, Social justice (Social and economic equality), Issue like inequality and education, Inclusive and sustainable development, Etc.
Demographic shrinkage:
  • Meaning: Also known as population shrinkage or demographic decline, refers to a situation in which a particular population, such as that of a region, country, or community, is decreasing in size and becoming smaller over time. This decline is typically a result of factors such as low birth rates, higher mortality rates, and often outmigration, where people leave the area.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Demographic dividend, aging population, Challenge of young population and growing old age population in westerns countries and countries like China, decreasing fertility rate Etc.
Rise of India is on an incremental trajectory:
  • Meaning: It suggests that India's progress, development, or growth is occurring gradually and steadily over time. It suggests that India is moving forward in a step-by-step manner, making consistent and continuous improvements in various aspects of its economy, society, or other areas.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to refer – India as the 5th largest economy from fragile five economy, India on path of becoming 3rd largest economy and developed economy by 2047, India’s rise in - Space sector, in sports Etc.


Various initiatives taken for cleaning beaches for tourism and sustainable practices:
  • Utilizing the community participation: Yuva Tourism Club and Afroz Shah Foundation, along with 900 swachh volunteers they recently joined the beach cleaning activity at Versova beach and removed 80,000 kgs of waste and over 7000 Ganesh idols. 
  • Bhumi a volunteer based non-profit organization in Chennai organizes beach cleanup drives, awareness programs on marine litter. 
  • Use of technology: Mumbai's Clean Coast Mumbai initiative, for example, utilizes advanced beach cleaning machines to effectively address pollution issues along its shores. 


Key Facts related to reservoir and water depletion in India:
  • As per United Nations University, 27 of the 31 aquifers in the country are depleting faster than they can be replenished.
  • After the implementation of Atal Bhujal Yojana in 2020, the groundwater extraction for irrigation, domestic and industrial uses came down by about 6 billion cubic metres in 2022 from 2020.
  • India pumps up the most groundwater globally — more than China and the US combined.
  • According to the Central Ground Water Board, about 70% of the water used in the country is from groundwater sources. 
  • The UN report shows that 78% of the wells in the state of Punjab are overexploited.


Prime Minister’s speech:
  • On India’s cultural values:
  • Many great civilizations have perished but there is a consciousness in the soil of India which has saved this nation from ancient times till today”.
  • India’s soil has consciousness. It has a life form that has prevented the downfall of civilization.
  • On success and motivation: “The end of something always signifies the beginning of something new”.


Recommendations on depletion of groundwater depletion and management:
  • Mihir Shah Committee (2016): On issue of study for groundwater:
  • It argued that there is little “understanding of river systems or their interconnections with the health of catchment areas or groundwater”. Several other reports, including those commissioned by the Niti Aayog and the Central Water Commission, have underlined the poor state of the country’s aquifers.
  • It pointed out, there has been little emphasis on institutional innovations (study of linkage between subsidy and falling water atble) in the water sector.


Deep Ocean Mission:
  • Definition: The Deep Ocean Mission (DOM), one of nine missions under the Prime Minister’s Science, Technology, and Innovation Advisory Council (PMSTIAC) is India’s ambitious mission to explore and harness the depths of the ocean to scientifically explore the deep oceans towards improving our understanding of the blue frontier.
Global Stocktake:
  • Definition: The Global Stocktake is a fundamental component of the Paris Agreement which is used to monitor implementation of nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and evaluate the collective progress made in achieving the agreed goals.


Quote on Inequality: In a world of increasing inequality, the legitimacy of institutions that give precedence to the property rights of ‘Haves’ over the human rights of ‘Have Nots’ is inevitably called into serious question”. – DAVID KORTEN
  • Meaning: The quote suggests that in a society where economic inequality is growing, there is a growing skepticism about the fairness and credibility of institutions that prioritize the property rights of those who have wealth and resources ("Haves") over the basic human rights of those who are less privileged and lack these resources ("Have Nots").
output themes