Swachhta Warriors:
  • Meaning: It refers to individuals or groups who are actively engaged in various initiatives and efforts related to cleanliness, sanitation, and environmental hygiene. "Swachhta" is a Hindi word that means "cleanliness" or "sanitation," and "Warriors" in this context implies people who are actively and passionately involved in the cause of promoting cleanliness and hygiene.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to refer – Individuals engaged in cleanliness and in questions related to - Swachh Bharat Mission, manual scavenging, Namami gange mission, Health and Nutrition,  Etc.
From Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) to ‘Strategic environmental assessment (SEA)’: 
  • Meaning: It represents a shift in the way environmental considerations are integrated into decision-making processes, particularly in the fields of planning, policy development, and large-scale projects. SEA, is a broader and more comprehensive approach. It assesses the environmental implications of policies, plans, and programs, rather than individual projects. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – environment impact assessment (EIA) laws in India, Forest Rights Act, Diversion of forests and environmental sustainability,  Etc.
Climate change: Another layer of vulnerability:
  • Meaning: It suggests that climate change, with its associated environmental and societal impacts, adds an additional level of susceptibility or risk to an already vulnerable situation, disaster etc. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to refer - Disaster and disaster management, impact of disaster and climate change, Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI),  Sustainable development Etc.
Materiality and morality of Net Zero: 
  • Meaning: In the context of "Net Zero," materiality focuses on the concrete actions and strategies that need to be implemented to achieve the goal of net-zero greenhouse gas emissions. 
  • The morality of Net Zero involves the ethical imperative to take action against climate change, emphasizing the responsibility of individuals, organizations, and governments.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Transition towards net zero (India’s vision of net zero by 2070),  International cooperation to fight climate change and GHGs, Mission LiFE Etc.


Case study for regulating Artificial Intelligence (AI):
  • Example: European Union’s AI Act: It adopts a ‘risk-based’ approach, tying the severity of risk to the area of AI deployment. This makes sense when considering AI applications in critical infrastructures, which demand heightened scrutiny.
  • Criticism: Tying risk solely to the deployment area is an oversimplified strategy. It might overlook certain risks that are not directly tied to the deployment area. Therefore, while the area-specific approach is valuable, a more holistic view of AI risks is necessary to ensure comprehensive and effective regulation and oversight.


Key facts related to credit growth of banks in India: According to the ASCB data:
  • Between 2000-2010: Bank credit grew at an average of 1.86 times of nominal GDP growth, during a period of high growth. 
  • Between 2010-2020: Bank credit to GDP growth declined to 0.99 times, largely because of the severe asset quality issues of banks post the 2008 global crisis. 
  • Post Pandemic: The relationship broke down during the pandemic years of 2020-21 and 2021-22 as DP contracted.


Prime Minister’s speech: 
  • On Inland waterway transport system: Inland waterways transport is proving to be a game-changer as well as emerging as an environment friendly and cost-effective mode of transportation.


Supreme court (SC) observation on environment impact assessment (EIA):
  • In T.N. Godavarman Thirumulpad vs Union of India (2011): SC has observed in Lafarge Umiam Mining (P) Ltd. that there is no regulator at the national level to carry out an independent, objective and transparent appraisal and approval of the projects for environmental clearance and to monitor the implementation of the conditions laid down in the EC.


Environment Impact Assessment (EIA):  
  • Definition: UNEP defines Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a tool used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to decision-making. It aims to predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project planning and design, find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts, shape projects to suit the local environment and present the predictions and options to decision-makers. 
Net Zero Emission:
  • Definition: ‘Net zero emissions’ refers to achieving an overall balance between greenhouse gas emissions produced and greenhouse gas emissions taken out of the atmosphere.


Quote on Power: Power ought to serve as a check on power”. –  MONTESQUIEU
  • Meaning: The quote suggests that the concept of power should inherently include mechanisms or systems that prevent its abuse or excessive concentration. In this context, power refers to authority, influence, or control over resources, decisions, or people. It conveys the idea that those in positions of power should not be allowed to wield their authority without any constraints or accountability.
Quote on Gender Parity: Gender parity is not just good for women—it’s good for societies”. - ANGELICA FUENTES
  • Meaning: The quote highlights that achieving gender equality, where women have the same opportunities, rights, and status as men, benefits not only women but the society as a whole. It emphasizes that gender equality is not a zero-sum game; it's not about one gender gaining at the expense of the other.