Collective struggle:
  • Meaning: It refers to the joint effort and shared challenges faced by a group of people who come together to overcome common obstacles, achieve common goals, or address shared concerns.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions as – Collective struggle against air pollution, corruption, climate change, undemocratic and authoritative government, Collective struggle for – good governance, transparency Etc.
Psychological slavery:
  • Meaning: It emphasizes to describe a state of mental or emotional subjugation, where individuals feel constrained or oppressed by their own thoughts, beliefs, or emotions.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Colonial hangover, globalisation and impact on domestic culture, caste subjugation and discrimination, lack of autonomy Etc.
Filling up the information gap:
  • Meaning: It refers to the process of providing or acquiring information to bridge a deficiency or void in knowledge. This can occur in various contexts, including education, decision-making, problem-solving, and communication.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Digital technology/Digital literacy, RTI and citizen charter, People participation in democracy and policy formulation, Social Audit Etc.
Symphony of diversity:
  • Meaning: It highlights the positive aspects of diversity and the collective strength that arises when different elements, whether in a community, organization, or society, work together in unity.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – India’s cultural diversity, Ek Bharat Shresta Bharat, Cultural factors like – music, architecture, Etc.


Step taken towards digital public infrastructure (DPI):
  • Step taken: 50-in-5 campaign. 11 ‘First-Mover’ countries, recently launched this campaign.
  • Benefits: 50-in-5 brings countries together to help radically shorten DPI implementation journeys by sharing learnings, best practices, and built-for-purpose open technologies – including digital public goods (DPGs) – that can reduce costs and maximize impact for all.
Case studies on steps taken by Countries to fight pollution:
  • On balancing population and urbanisation: Beijing, Mexico City, and even London did just that to address even worse air pollution than what we are facing today. 
  • On availability of affordable green urban public transport: Singapore, Hong Kong and most Chinese million-population cities have provided last mile connectivity.
  • Regional or airshed approach to address pollution: This approach was successfully deployed in Los Angeles, Mexico City and many mega-urban regions in China.
  • Wide-scale citizen mobilisation for awareness and education: This helped turn the tide in Los Angeles in the 1960s and Mexico City in the 1990s and 2000s.


Key data related to action towards agriculture:
  • The Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) is one of the world’s largest Direct Benefit Transfer schemes. A flagship scheme of the Government of India, it exemplifies the continued commitment of the Government of India to initiate policy actions for an inclusive and productive agricultural sector. 


President’s speech:
  • On Children: Children are the future of the country. It is the duty of all of us to safeguard this future and ensure its proper upbringing. It is the responsibility of all of us to give the right direction to the talent of our children.


Supreme court (SC) judgements on criminal cases and witnesses:
  • The Supreme Court recently held in a judgment that the evidence of interested or inimical witnesses cannot be discarded merely on the ground that they are partisan. Instead, such testimonies have to be scrutinised with care.
  • The only requirement is that their evidence has to be scrutinised with greater care and circumspection.


  • Definition: Deglobalisation is the process of diminishing interdependence and integration between certain units around the world, typically nation-states. It is widely used to describe the periods of history when economic trade and investment between countries decline.
Additive technology/3D Printing:
  • Definition: 3D technology, also known as ‘additive technology’, is a process that uses computer-created design to make three dimensional objects, layer by layer.


Quote on Himalayas and Conservation: The Himalayas are fragile and host to several complex processes that need to be monitored”. – KALACHAND SAIN
  • Meaning: The quote emphasizes the need for a vigilant and proactive approach in understanding and safeguarding the Himalayas. It underscores the fragility of this mountainous region and the intricate processes at play, urging ongoing monitoring to address environmental challenges and promote sustainable practices.