Three aspects of women’s choices: Horizon, identity and decision making (HID):
  • Meaning: It suggests that when discussing or analyzing the choices made by women, there are three key elements or aspects to consider
  • Horizon: Whether at the time of planning her education, a woman perceives that her lifetime labour force participation will be “long and continuous or intermittent and brief”. 
  • Identity: Whether a woman derives a sense of personhood from her professional identity.
  • Decision making: Where women are fully autonomous in making their labour market choices. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Women empowerment – in family, society, political and economic sphere, Women Act, 2023, Society questions – patriarchal society, Women labour force participation, women as agent of change Etc.
Feminising the lens of economic enquiry: 
  • Meaning: It refers to the idea of incorporating feminist perspectives, theories, and methodologies into the field of economics. It is an approach that seeks to analyze economic issues, policies, and phenomena with a focus on gender equality, women's experiences, and the impacts of economic decisions and structures on women.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Economic growth or development in terms of women economic participation, Women in labour force participation, in agriculture, Etc.
Innovation: Core of India's transformation and progress:
  • Meaning: It conveys that innovation plays a central and indispensable role in driving the transformation and advancement of India as a nation.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to refer - R&D, Innovation and IPR regime, space technology and India’s increasing prowess in the world, Green revolution and technological advancements, Education and skill Etc.
Iron-clad society/politics & policies: 
  • Meaning: It refers to a situation in which societal, political, and policy structures or systems are exceptionally strong, rigid, and resistant to change or external influence. It suggests a high degree of inflexibility, firmness, and stability.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Society (tolerance, fraternity and brotherhood), polity (political stability, democratic values), Governance (transference and openness, good governance) Etc.


Example of individual aspiration and institutional support:
  • Example: In 2018, 96-year-old Karthyayani Amma topped Kerala’s Aksharalaksham literacy programme with 98%.
  • At the age of 101 years, Amma’s drive — she had wanted to clear her Class X exams — remains a motivational model of both individual aspiration and institutional support. 


Increasing female labour force participation: As per Periodic Labour Force Survey Report 2022-23:
  • The Female Labour Force Participation Rate in the country has improved significantly by 4.2 percentage points to 37.0% in 2023, as per ‘usual status’ concept of measuring labour force participation.
Key facts related to sugar production in India:
  • India surpassed Brazil in the 2021-22 season to become the world’s largest sugar producer and second largest exporter.


Prime Minister’s speech: 
  • On Terrorism: There is no consensus on the definition of terrorism. Even today the International Convention on Combating Terrorism is waiting for consensus in the United Nations. The enemies of humanity are taking advantage of this attitude of the world. Parliaments and representatives around the world will have to think about how we can work together in this fight against terrorism.
Vice President’s speech:
  • On Agriculture: When the farmer is happy, it brings happiness to the whole country & all sections of the society enjoy prosperity. Farmers are the backbone of the country's economy.


Abortion law in India and CJI’s view:
  • Chief justice of India said: India’s abortion law was liberal, pro-choice and far ahead of other countries while hearing the case of a married woman who wants to medically terminate her 26-week pregnancy.
  • He also said that there is no doubt that our law is far ahead of other countries. We will not have a Roe versus Wade situation in which US SC rule that the country’s Constitution generally protected the right to abortion.


  • Definition: A referendum is a type of direct democracy, that allows citizens to express their views and preferences on a particular matter. Referendums are typically used for significant or controversial issues, such as changes to a country's constitution, major policy decisions, or decisions on important social or political matters.
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cell (CART cell) therapy:
  • Definition: CAR T cell therapy is a type of cancer immunotherapy treatment that uses immune cells called T cells that are genetically altered in a lab to enable them in locating and destroying cancer cells more effectively.


Quote on Learning: The beautiful thing about learning is nobody can take it away from you”. –  B B King
  • Meaning: The quote signifies the enduring nature of learning. It conveys the idea that once you acquire knowledge and skills, they become a part of you, and no one can take that away. 
  • Learning is a lifelong journey, and the more you learn, the more you empower yourself with the ability to adapt, grow, and succeed in various aspects of life.
Quote on Responsibility: You cannot escape the responsibility of tomorrow by evading it today”. - Abraham Lincoln
  • Meaning: The quote emphasizes the idea that avoiding or procrastinating one's responsibilities today will not make those responsibilities disappear. In fact, it often makes matters worse. 
  • It serves as a reminder to face your responsibilities head-on and deal with them in the present rather than hoping they will magically disappear or become easier to handle in the future. It encourages taking a proactive and responsible approach to life's challenges.