3As (ambitions, aptitude, and abilities) of youth:
  • Meaning: These 3As are key factors that play a crucial role in shaping the future and potential success of young individuals. 
  • It signifies importance for parents, educators, mentors, and society as a whole to support and empower young individuals in exploring their ambitions, recognizing their aptitudes, and acquiring the abilities necessary to succeed in their chosen paths.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Education and skills, NEP 2020, Teachers' training, Entrepreneurship and startups in India, Role of youth and demographic dividend in economic growth Etc.
Decolonisation of knowledge system: 
  • Meaning: This keyword aims for challenging and undoing the historical, cultural, and intellectual legacies of colonialism. It involves reevaluating, decentering, and diversifying the knowledge and educational systems that have been historically dominated by Western perspectives and voices. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Indian philosophy and hegemony of western philosophy, Education and NEP 2020, civil services reforms (colonial mindset), Globalisation Etc.
From Policy Bankruptcy/Vacuum to Policy Resilience:
  • Meaning: Policy Bankruptcy/Vacuum - A situation in which existing policies are ineffective, outdated, or insufficient to address pressing societal issues. It may also occur when there is a lack of clear policy guidance in critical areas.
  • Policy Resilience - A concept that signifies the capacity of a policy framework or governance system to adapt, respond, and thrive in the face of challenges, disruptions, and changing circumstances.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Economic, political and civil services reforms, good governance, inclusive and participatory governance, global governance (climate justice and measures against terrorism, free trade) Etc.
Creating multiple agricultural revolutions: 
  • Meaning: This keyword refers to the idea of initiating significant and transformative changes in the field of agriculture multiple times, akin to the historical Agricultural Revolution that took place thousands of years ago and reshaped human societies. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Agriculture and need of 2nd green revolution, food security, agricultural and climate resilience, Health and nutrition, role of natural, organic farming, horticulture and other types of farming etc.


Example of Natural and human induced disasters:
  • Case: Libya.
  • What happened: More than 5,000 people were killed and at least 10,000 were missing in Libya after torrential rains caused two dams to burst near the coastal city of Derna, destroying much of the city and carrying entire neighbourhoods into the sea.
Need of public-police cooperation for traffic management:
  • Case: New Delhi.
  • Step taken: Experiencing from the G20 traffic management, the SCP (Traffic) of Delhi said that the city’s traffic is manageable if the police and people work in tandem. For a better public transport system, it shouldn’t just be affordable, it should be easily available, comfortable, and safe too.


Key facts related to global emission and climate change:
  • According to an assessment by the International Energy Agency (IEA), tripling global renewable energy capacity by 2030 could prevent 7 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions by 2030.
  • Global renewable energy capacity: Annual capacity additions have more than doubled from 2015 to 2022, rising by about 11% per year on average.
  • India and China: Both together account for more than 50% of global capacity additions in each of the last five years. 
  • Role of international solar alliance (ISA): Solar energy constitutes more than 50% of new renewable energy capacity additions every year and is pivotal to the growth of renewables.


Prime Minister’s Speech:
  • The period till 2047, when the country celebrates 100 years of independence — is an opportune time to realise the vision of building a strong, sustainable, self-reliant and developed India.
President’s Speech (Smt Droupadi Murmu):
  • On agriculture and farmers: 
  • The farming fraternity of the world is its foremost conserver and they are the true guardians of crop diversity.
  • The technology and science can serve as an effective protector and enhancer of heritage knowledge.
  • Agricultural research and technology development has enabled India to multiply production of food grains, horticulture, fisheries, milk and eggs many times since 1950-51, thus making a visible impact on the national food and nutrition security.


Supreme court (SC) judgement on CBI investigation power:
  • In landmark case of Vineet Narain (1997): The SC had struck down the Centre’s ‘Single Directive’, a set of instructions to the CBI on holding an inquiry into corruption charges against officials of the rank of Joint Secretary and above, can begin only after the Central government’s approval. 
  • Ground to stuck down: A statutory investigation cannot be impeded by administrative instructions. 


  • Definition: According to FAO, Agrobiodiversity is a vital sub-set of biodiversity which encompasses the variety and variability of animals, plants and micro-organisms that are necessary for sustaining key functions of the agro-ecosystem, including its structure and processes for, and in support of, food production and food security. 
Tax Havens:
  • Definition: Tax havens, also known as the offshore financial centers, are countries or jurisdictions that offer minimal or no tax liability to foreign individuals and businesses.


Quote on Goal & Ambitions: Big results require big ambitions”. –  HERACLITUS
  • Meaning: The quote encourages individuals and organizations to set high goals and aspirations in order to achieve significant accomplishments. 
  • It emphasizes the idea that aiming for substantial achievements and thinking beyond one's comfort zone is essential to attaining remarkable outcomes.
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