Shock absorbers of the economy:
  • Meaning: It refers to mechanisms or components within an economic system that can help mitigate or absorb the impact of economic shocks or disturbances. Economic shocks can include sudden and unexpected events or changes that have a significant effect on various aspects of the economy.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - NBFCs, MSMEs, Rural Economy, Agriculture, Infrastructure investment, Education and workforce development, Etc.
Safeguarding cyber sovereignty:
  • Meaning: It refers to the protection and preservation of a nation's ability to govern, control its own cyberspace, cyber infrastructure, data, and information space and are secure, protected, and aligned with its own laws, values, and policies.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Cyber security and cyber threats, Regulating critical infrastructures, internet and protection of consumers, Data protection law and Bill in India, Digital India, Etc.
Regulating human using AI, not AI itself:
  • Meaning: It suggests a focus on implementing regulations and controls on the actions and decisions made by humans through the use of artificial intelligence (AI), rather than regulating the AI systems directly.
  • This distinction reflects the understanding that AI is a tool created and utilized by humans, and the ethical and responsible use of AI depends on how humans deploy and interact with these technologies.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Regulation of AI and its usage, Deep fakes and gov. measures, Privacy and data usages and its regulation, Data protection and Bill in India, Education and awareness Etc.
Silver generation of India:
  • Meaning: It refers to the elderly population or senior citizens in the country. This demographic group is characterized by individuals who are in the later stages of their lives, typically aged 60 and above.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Demographic dividend and youth bulge, Old and social responsibilities towards increasing need of healthcare system for silver generation, Inclusive and sustainable development Etc.


Step towards creating women entrepreneurs:
  • Step taken: DAY-NRLM and SIDBI has signed a MOU, to create a transformative initiative aimed at promoting women-led enterprises among experienced members of Self Help Groups (SHGs).
  • Aim: To demonstrate on-the-ground activities that establish a reliable and sensitive support structure for the capacity enhancement of women entrepreneurs (WEs).


Air Pollution and Economic Losses:
  • According to World Bank estimates, the global cost of the health damage due to air pollution amounts to $8.1 trillion a year. 
  • As per OECD estimates that approximately 2 billion workdays are lost globally each year due to air pollution, and this could reach 3.8 billion days by 2060.
Labour productivity in India:
  • As per latest Periodic Labour Force Survey data: there is a significant work hours gap between genders. This is wider in rural areas, probably due to women’s additional unpaid care work.
  • Output per worker (India’s significant change): From 1990 to 2019, the U.S. saw a 63% increase in productivity, Germany 59%, and India nearly 9 times.
  • In 2017, Chinese workers were 1.44 times more productive than Indians. 


Vice President’s speech:
  • On protection of planet: Humans are the "trustees of the planet”. Earth is not exclusively for humans but for all living beings, each with the right to live on the planet. 


Supreme court (SC) judgements on IBC:
  • The SC in its recent judgement, upheld the constitutional validity of various provisions of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), including Section 95, which allows creditors to initiate insolvency proceedings against personal guarantors.
  • While the law was enacted in 2016, in 2019 it was amended to incorporate provisions related to personal guarantors instead of limiting it to firms that were not settling the liabilities to their creditors. 


Dispute Settlement Mechanism of WTO:
  • Definition: The World Trade Organization (WTO) in the form of Dispute Settlement Undertaking (DSU), provides an instrument for the settling of trade disputes between the parties. It is the outcome of the Uruguay round (1996-1994) and provides a speedy resolution of a trade dispute. 
National Ayush Mission:
  • Definition: The National AYUSH Mission (NAM) launched in 2014 and is being implemented by Ministry of AYUSH aims to address the gaps in health services through supporting the efforts of State/UT Governments for providing AYUSH health services/education in the country, particularly in vulnerable and far-flung areas.


Quote on Goal and Success: If one does not know to which port one is sailing, no wind is favourable”. – SENECA
  • Meaning: The quote encourages individuals to reflect on their goals, aspirations, and the direction they want to take in life.
  • It underscores the idea that success and progress are closely tied to having a clear vision and purpose, and without that clarity, external factors or opportunities may not lead to favorable outcomes.