PORTUGAL (Syllabus GS Paper 2 – IR/Places in News)

News-CRUX-10     26th April 2024        
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Context: Recently, thousands spilled onto the streets to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Portugal's 'Carnation Revolution,' marking the overthrow of Europe's longest-standing fascist dictatorship and the dawn of democracy in the country.

Carnation Revolution

  • About: It is also known as the 25 April, occurred in 1974 in Lisbon, Portugal, overthrowing the authoritarian Estado Novo government.
  • Social Impact: The Carnation Revolution brought about significant social changes in Portugal, fostering a transition towards democracy.
  • Economic Changes: The revolution led to major economic reforms in Portugal, altering the economic landscape of the country.
  • Political Transformation: The Carnation Revolution marked a turning point in Portuguese politics, ushering in a new era of democracy and ending authoritarian rule.
  • Overseas Colonies: The revolution had profound effects on Portugal's overseas colonies, leading to decolonization processes and the end of the Portuguese Colonial War.


  • About: Situated along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, holds a significant place in southwestern Europe.
  • Capital: Lisbon
  • Borders: The Portugal-Spain border in the north and east constitutes the longest uninterrupted border-line in the European Union.
  • Mountain: The highest Portuguese mountain is Mount Pico.

o The highest peak in Mainland Portugal is Torre in the Serra da Estrela range

  • River: Tagus River
  • Strait of Gibraltar: Between Morocco and Portugal
  • Member of: European Union, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organization, and NATO.