PANAMA (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – IR)

News-CRUX-10     13th May 2024        

Context: Panama is on the verge of a dramatic change to its immigration policy that could reverberate from the dense Darien jungle to the U.S. border.


  • About: It is a country of Central America situated on the Isthmus of Panama, connecting North and South America.
  • Boundaries: Bounded to the north by the Caribbean Sea and to the south by the Pacific Ocean.
  • Geographical Features: It has an elongated S shape, with a Caribbean coastline stretching about 800 miles and a Pacific coast about 1,060 miles long.
  • A central spine of mountain ranges divides the country into Atlantic- and Pacific-facing slopes.
  • Mountain Ranges: The Tabasará Mountains (Cordillera Central) in the west and the Cordillera de San Blas in the east are the two principal ranges.
  • These ranges are separated near the center of the country by a saddle of lower land.
  • Capital: Panama City.

Panama Canal

  • About: The Panama Canal, a man-made waterway, serves as a vital link connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by traversing the Isthmus of Panama.
  • Strategic Importance: Recognized as one of the world's two most crucial artificial water passages, the Panama Canal shares this distinction with the Suez Canal, playing a pivotal role in international maritime trade.
  • Dimensions: Stretching approximately 80 kilometers in length, the canal serves as a remarkable feat of engineering, significantly shortening travel distances for ships.