MELGHAT TIGER RESERVE (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Env and Eco)

News-CRUX-10     20th February 2024        
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Context: The ongoing Kula Mama Volleyball Tournament-2024 in Melghat Tiger Reserve's (MTR) Semadoh sends a strong message to save tigers and the pristine forest with involvement of local youths.

Melghat Tiger Reserve

  • Location: It is located on the southern offshoot of the Satpura Hill Range in Central India, called Gavilgarh Hill.
  • Established as a wildlife sanctuary in:  1967 and was declared a tiger reserve in 1974.

oIt was the first tiger reserve in Maharashtra.

oIt was among the first nine tiger reserves notified in 1973-74 under Project Tiger.

oThe name 'Melghat' means the confluence of various 'ghats' or valleys, as is typical from the landscape of this tiger Reserve.

  • Vegetation: Tropical dry deciduous in nature, dominated by teak.
  • Rivers: The Khandu, Khapra, Sipna, Gadga, and Dolar, all of which are tributaries of the river Tapti.

oThe Tapti River and the Gawilgadh ridge of the Satpura Range form the boundaries of the reserve.

  • Tribes: The Korkus are the largest tribal community in Melghat. Other communities include the Gawli community, the Gond tribe, and several other smaller tribal communities.
  • Flora: Teak, Lagerstroemia Parviflora, Terminalia Tomentosa, Ougeinia Oojeinensis, Emblica Officinalis, Bamboo, etc.
  • Fauna: Apart from Tigers, the other prominent animals are Sloth Bear, Indian Gaur, Sambar deer, Leopard, Nilgais, dhole, hyena, jungle cat, langur, etc.

oIt is considered a stronghold of the critically endangered forest owlet.