LOK SABHA (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – Polity)

News-CRUX-10     26th February 2024        

Context: In his recently aired Mann ki Baat monthly radio programme, the Prime Minister of India hinted that the dates of the Lok Sabha elections may be announced soon and that there would be a three-month break before the next episode, citing the potential implementation of the Model Code of Conduct in March.

Lok Sabha

  • Known as: Often referred to as the Lower House or the House of the People.
  • Election: Members are directly elected through Universal Adult Franchise.
  • Lok Sabha Structure(Article 81(1)): The Lok Sabha can have a maximum membership of 550, with 530 members directly elected from states and 20 members elected from Union Territories.
  • Seat Distribution: Seats are distributed among states based on territorial representation and population proportion.
  • Constituency Demarcation: States are subdivided into constituencies to ensure equal population representation.
  • Qualifications for Lok Sabha Members:
  • Eligibility Criteria: Minimum age requirement of 25 and adherence to the Constitution.
  • Tenure: The standard term for Lok Sabha is five years, subject to dissolution under certain circumstances.
  • Extension Provisions: Extensions may occur during National Emergencies but are limited in duration.
  • Allocation of Seats to States:

oPopulation-based Allocation: Seats allocated to states are proportionate to their population, subject to a minimum threshold.

oApplicability: The provision applies if the state's population exceeds 60 lakhs.

Power and Functions

  • Decisions in Joint Sitting: Ordinary laws require approval from both Houses, Disagreements between Houses lead to joint sessions, Lok Sabha's larger strength often decides outcomes.
  • Power in Money Matters: Lok Sabha holds more authority in financial affairs.

oOnce Lok Sabha approves budgets or money-related laws, Rajya Sabha cannot reject.

oRajya Sabha can only delay or suggest changes, which Lok Sabha may accept or reject.

  • Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers. 'No confidence' vote by Lok Sabha members requires Ministers, including Prime Minister, to resign. Rajya Sabha lacks this authority.
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