FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     19th March 2024        
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Context: The Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) has affected around 60% of milch cattle in Pilibhit district, Uttar Pradesh.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD)

  • About: FMD is a highly contagious viral disease affecting livestock, leading to significant economic impacts.
  • Causal Agent and Strains: FMD is caused by an aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family, with seven endemic strains worldwide (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia1).
  • Susceptibility in Intensively Reared Animals: Intensively reared animals are more susceptible to FMD compared to traditional breeds due to various factors.
  • Symptoms: Characterized by fever and blister-like sores in the mouth, on the tongue, lips, teats, and between the hooves.
  • Cause: Ilness in cows, pigs, sheep, goats, deer, and other animals with divided hooves. It does not affect horses, dogs, or cats. 
  • Transmitted: Air particles between animals housed closely together.
  • Limited Cross-Immunity: Immunity to one strain of FMD does not protect animals against other strains or subtypes, necessitating tailored vaccination strategies.
  • Impact on Mortality and Production: While rarely fatal in adult animals, FMD can cause high mortality in young animals and severe production losses, leaving survivors debilitated.
  • Recognition by International Organizations: FMD was the first disease recognized by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), indicating its global significance in animal health and trade.

Government Initiatives:

  • National Animal Disease Control Programme for foot-and-mouth disease and Brucellosis: It is a 100% centrally funded programme with a total outlay of Rs 12,600 crore from 2019 to 2024.

oAim: To control Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis by 2025 with vaccination and eventual eradication by 2030.

  • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) control programme: It envisages 100% vaccination coverage of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and pigs at six-month interval.

oObjective : To control FMD by 2025 with vaccination and its eventual eradication by 2030.

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