News-CRUX-10     13th February 2024        

Context: Millions of iconic migratory animal species are in peril because of anthropogenic pressures, said a report released at the start of the 14th Conference of Parties (COP14) to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) of Wild Animals in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

Key Points

  • The State of the World’s Migratory Species has revealed that aquatic ecosystems are the worst-hit — 97 per cent of migratory fish listed under CMS face the risk of extinction. These fish species have seen a steep decline in relative abundance in the past 50 years on average.
  • Twenty-eight of the total fish species facing threats are categorised as ‘Critically Endangered’ under the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)’s Red List.
  • There are 4,508 species that are considered to be migratory, have had a global IUCN Red List assessment and occur in multiple Range States (non-endemic species). Of these, 3,339 (74 per cent) are not currently listed in the CMS appendices.
  • Of the 3,339 non-CMS species, 277 (eight per cent) are considered to be ‘Globally Threatened’ and another 122 species (four per cent) have been categorised as ‘Near Threatened’. The report recommends considering 399 Globally and Near Threatened species to meet the CMS criteria listed in the appendices.
  • Causes: Overexploitation, habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation 

    Convention On The Conservation Of Migratory Species Of Wild Animals (CMS)

    • About: It is an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
    • Signed in1979, in Bonn, Germany. Also known as the Bonn Convention.
    • It is the only global, & UN-based, intergovernmental convention established exclusively for the conservation and management of migratory species (terrestrial, aquatic, & avian), their habitats and migration routes.
    • Type: The convention has legally binding agreements and non-legally binding Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) which are tailored according to conservation needs.
    • Appendix I of CMS: It lists the Migratory species threatened with extinction, and Parties strive towards strictly protecting them.
    • Appendix II of CMS: Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international cooperation.
    • Member:  133 parties. India is a party to this convention since 1983 (China, Russia, US, Canada, Japan are not its members).