CHOLERA DISEASE (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     24th June 2024        

Context: The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that the demand for cholera vaccines is exceeding supply, as 24 countries have reported nearly 200,000 cases this year.

Cholera Disease

  • About: It is a water-borne disease.
  • Caused by: An acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
  • Symptoms: Profuse watery diarrhoea, Vomiting, and Leg cramps
  • Transmission: A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium.

oThe disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.

  • Vaccine: Currently there are three WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines (OCV), Dukoral, Shanchol, and Euvichol-Plus.

oAll three vaccines require two doses for full protection.

oIt is not covered in Universal Immunization Programme (UIP).

Steps Taken for Control Cholera

  • Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC): Serve as a platform for technical exchange, coordination, and collaboration on cholera-related activities.
  • Ending Cholera: To eliminate cholera in up to 20 countries by the year 2030.
  • Country Support Platform (CSP): Enhance GTFCC support to countries.
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