CERVICAL CANCER (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     3rd February 2024        

Context: The Department of Health and Family Welfare was allocated Rs 87,656.90 crore in the interim Union Budget 2024-2025 tabled by Finance Minister in Parliament.

Cervical Cancer

  • About: It is s a growth of cells that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.
  • HPV is a common infection that's passed through sexual contact.
  • Symptoms: When it starts, cervical cancer might not cause symptoms. As it grows, cervical cancer might cause signs and symptoms, such as:

oVaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause.

oMenstrual bleeding that is heavier and lasts longer than usual.

oWatery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor.

  • Causes: when healthy cells in the cervix develop changes in their DNA. A cell's DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The changes tell the cells to multiply quickly.
  • Treatment: Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as secondary care for pain management.
  • Types of cervical cancer

oSquamous cell carcinoma: This type of cervical cancer begins in thin, flat cells, called squamous cells. The squamous cells line the outer part of the cervix. Most cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas.

oAdenocarcinom:. This type of cervical cancer begins in the column-shaped gland cells that line the cervical canal.

  • Vaccine: Cervarix (bivalent), Gardasil (quadrivalent), and

oCervavac (quadrivalent) - This is India's first indigenous HPV vaccine, launched in January 2023, It has been developed and manufactured by Pune-based Serum Institute of India (SII). It targets the same four HPV types as Gardasil.

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