CAR-T CELL THERAPY (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     16th October 2023        
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Context: Recently, Mumbai-based Immunoadoptive Cell Therapy Private Limited (ImmunoACT) celebrated the approval of India's first chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) for treating relapsed-refractory B-cell lymphoma and leukemia.


CART-T Cell Therapy

  • About: CAR-T therapy represents an innovative and highly intricate form of immune therapy. It reprograms the patient's immune system to combat cancer.
  • Referred to as 'the living drug,' CAR-T cells actively seek out and target cancerous cells, effectively distinguishing them from healthy ones.
  • This approach utilizes T-cells, a type of immune cell harvested from patients' blood. These T-cells are genetically modified to recognize specific surface proteins present in cancer cells.
  • India's inaugural domestically developed Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is NexCAR19. 
  • It is designed to target relapsed-refractory B-cell lymphoma and leukemia, signifying a notable advancement in cancer treatment.


B-cell lymphoma

  • It refers to a group of cancers that affect your immune system. 
  • It frequently affects your lymphatic system, which is a network of lymph nodes, lymph vessels and tissues that move fluid around your body.


Leukemia

  • Leukemia is a form of cancer affecting the blood and bone marrow, responsible for blood cell production.
  • Individuals with leukemia experience an irregular generation of blood cells.
  • White blood cells undergo various stages of maturation during their lifespan.
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