AXIS OF RESISTANCE (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – IR)

News-CRUX-10     2nd February 2024        
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Context: Recently, a drone attack killed three US soldiers at a military outpost in Jordan—an attack blamed on a shadowy Iranian-linked militia group—yet it appears a wider regional conflict may have been averted.

The Axis of Resistance: It is an informal anti-Israeli and anti-Western political and military coalition led by the Iranian government.

Shia armed groups in Iraq

  • Kata’ib Hezbollah's Ceasefire: Accused by the US of a drone attack in Jordan, declared a pause in Iraq operations, influenced by Iran and Iraq.
  • Iran-Backed Militias in Iraq: Numerous Iran-backed groups, united as the Islamic Resistance in Iraq, operate within the country, with Kata’ib Hezbollah being one of them.
  • Popular Mobilisation Forces and ISIS: Established in 2014, Popular Mobilisation Forces (Al Hashd Al Sha’bi) became the primary Shia paramilitary force combating ISIS.
  • The Muqawama "Resistance": Iran-backed groups, framing themselves as the "resistance" (muqawama), intensified attacks on US and Turkish military bases in Iraq and Syria.


  • About: Hezbollah, also known as the "Party of God," originated in the 1980s to liberate southern Lebanon from Israeli occupation and uplift the marginalized Shia minority.
  • Evolution into a Political Entity: Transforming from a militia, Hezbollah has rebranded itself as a legitimate political party in Lebanon.
  • Dual Role and Operations: Presently, Hezbollah effectively functions as both a political party and a force with the ability to operate successfully in various domains.


  • About: The Houthis, a substantial clan, belong to the Zaidi Shia sect, tracing their origins to Yemen's northwestern Saada province.
  • Houthi Movement: It is a Shia Islamist political and military organization that emerged from Yemen.