Gender responsive urban planning, design and governance:

  • Meaning: It refer to a comprehensive approach aimed at creating cities and urban spaces that take into account the diverse needs, preferences, and experiences of all genders. 
  • It has a particular focus on addressing the historical and systemic inequalities and disparities that have often marginalized women and other gender groups.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – urbanization and smart cities, women empowerment, women’s role in economy, sustainable and inclusive growth etc.
Transform a common being into a conscious being: 
  • Meaning: Consciousness is the state of being aware of one's surroundings, thoughts, emotions, and experiences. The keyword signifies the importance of awareness and consciousness among citizens. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Education and skill, DPSP and Fundamental duty, digital literacy, awareness and participation of people in democracy etc.
From Whole-of-government approach to Whole-of-Nation approach:
  • Meaning: While both approaches emphasize coordination and collaboration, the Whole-of-Nation approach extends beyond government agencies to involve various stakeholders, including civil society, private sector, local communities, and citizens.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – environment and climate change, disaster management, climate finance, terrorism, cyber-security, etc.
From erosion of governance to confidence on government: 
  • Meaning: It represents a shift in the perception and effectiveness of a government's ability to lead, manage, and serve its citizens. 
  • It involves addressing challenges and restoring trust in governance systems to build a positive and productive relationship between the government and the people it serves.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Good Governance, Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States, Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary, Government Policies and Interventions, Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration, Probity in Governance, etc.


Positive impact of Food and nutrition on reducing TB incidents:
  • Study name: Reducing Activation of Tuberculosis by Improvement of Nutritional Status (RATIONS) by ICMR.
  • Findings: Improved nutrition can reduce the incidence of all forms of TB by up to 40%, and of infectious TB by up to 50% among those in contact with patients suffering from infectious lung TB.
  • It also found that early weight gain among underweight patients with TB could reduce risk of mortality by up to 60%.
Livestock and GHG emission:
  • Livestock account for 14.5% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Methane is the second-biggest greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide.
  • Methane is produced by microbes in the cow’s gut as it digests fibre, not by the animal itself.
  • Study (Canada): Artificial insemination and selective breeding in livestock can significantly reduce methane emission.

The State of Elementary Education in Rural India report: As per report released by Ministry of Education:
  • Negative impact of digitization: About 50% of students in rural India have access to smartphones, among them more than 75% use it for playing video game.
  • School drop-out: 
  • About 37% of the girls are dropped out to help in family earning.
  • For boys, the key reason for dropping out from school was the child’s lack of interest in studies. 
Achievement of Mission Indradhanush:
  • As per Health Management Information System 2022-23, 06 States/UTs have achieved 100% Full Immunization Coverage (FIC) whereas 17 States have achieved FIC of more than 90%.

President’s Speech: 
  • There is a need to transform a common being into a conscious being. 
  • It is this awakening that can transform the individuals, organizations, countries and the world. 
  • When awakened minds come together and work towards common goals, unimaginable results can be achieved.

Emergence of the basic structure doctrine: 
  • Shankari Prasad case (1951): The Supreme Court (SC) ruled that the power of the Parliament to amend the Constitution under Article 368 also includes the power to amend Fundamental Rights. 
  • Golak Nath case (1967): The SC ruled that the Fundamental Rights are given a ‘transcendental and immutable’ position and hence, the Parliament cannot abridge or take away any of these rights. 
  • Kesavananda Bharati case (1973): Parliament is empowered to abridge or take away any of the Fundamental Rights, however, Article 368 does not enable it to alter the ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution. It was upheld in Indira Nehru Gandhi case (1975) and Minerva Mills case (1980).
  • Waman Rao case (1981): SC clarified that basic structure would apply to constitutional amendments enacted after April 24, 1973 (i.e., the date of the judgement in the Kesavananda Bharati case). 

Attitude and Aptitude:  
  • Definition: Attitude: An attitude is one’s opinion or standpoint about something. It can be described as “a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event”. Attitudes are based on a person’s experiences, values, beliefs, and emotions. 
Aptitude: Aptitude is a person’s natural ability to learn something. It’s an inborn potential to excel in a certain area. For example, a person with an aptitude for language can learn foreign languages easily.
  • Left Wing Extremism (LWE):
  • Definition: Left Wing Extremism (LWE), also known as Naxalism and Maoism, refers to a political and ideological movement characterized by radical leftist beliefs and the use of violent means to overthrow established governments or challenge existing social and economic structures.

Quote on Power: The greater the power, the more dangerous the abuse”. - EDMUND BURKE
  • Meaning: The quote highlights the potential for misuse and negative consequences when individuals or entities hold significant authority, influence, or control. 
  • This concept underscores the idea that concentrated power can lead to situations where those in positions of authority may be tempted to exploit their power for personal gain, to suppress dissent, or to violate the rights and well-being of others.
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