5th June - AAJ KA QUALITY ENRICHMENT

Aaj Ka Quality Enrichment Program     5th June 2023     Save    
output themes
KEYWORDS
Lifeline of India’s Transportation/Industry/Good Governance:

  • Meaning: Lifeline of something represents that it is critical for the smooth functioning and development of that sector and country as a whole.
  • Usage: Lifeline of health sector – Primary health sector, Education – Foundational learning, Good governance - Transparency, Integrity and accountability, Economy – MSMEs, Unorganised sector.
Issues of sustainability: ESG (environment, social and governance):
  • Meaning: ESG (Environment, Social, and Governance) refers to a framework that evaluates any organizations/governments performance and impact in terms of environmental sustainability, social responsibility, and corporate governance. 
  • Usage: It can be used in topics related to growth vs. development, Net zero target, Sustainable development, corporate governance etc.
Triple planetary crisis (Pollution, Climate crisis, Biodiversity/Ecological crises):
  • Meaning: The triple planetary crisis refers to the three main interlinked issues that humanity currently faces: climate change, pollution and biodiversity loss. 
  • It is a terminology and framework adopted by the United Nations system to describe the three intersecting and global environmental crises.
  • Usage: Agriculture, Environment (Questions related to climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution), Sustainable development, Disaster management, Mission LiFE, Health crises etc.
State-centered political economy to Market-centered economy:
  • Meaning: State-centered political economy: The state intervenes in the free market, and undertakes a centrally planned and step-by-step pattern of development.
  • Market-centered economy: companies, prices, and production are controlled by market forces of demand & supply of goods and services rather than by government.
  • Usage: Strategic disinvestment/ Privatization of Education, Health, DISCOMs, Banks, PPP in Infrastructure, Asset Monetization, Technology Outsourcing, $5 trillion economy, developed India by 2047 etc.

KEY FACTS
Environment/River protection Movement:
  • MANOJ MISRA, former Indian Forest Service (IFS) was well known as the convener of the “Yamuna Jiye Abhiyan, formed in 2007” as a group of environmental organizations working for the Yamuna. 
Campaign against plastic pollution:
  • On the occasion of World Environment Day, Times of India launched the “Unplastic India”, a campaign in which it will take a hard look at the problems that plastic poses and possible solutions.
Use of Millets for nutritional benefits of children in Mid-day meal:
  • Delhi Government: Following an experiment in two government schools, the education department decided to make a shift to millet-based nutrition.
  • The Uttar Pradesh government had also announced that it would use millet in the midday meal programme.
Kerala: Kudumbashree Mission:
  • About: It is the poverty eradication and women empowerment programme implemented in Kerala.
  • Impact of Kudumshree Aid (Kuttanad, Kerala): Various Groups of women setting up tourism initiatives like water sports & entertainment park, health tourism clinic etc
Facts related to Railways in India:
  • The average speed of trains in India is 50 kmph compared to 150–250 kmph to countries like Japan, China, Turkey, and several European nations like France, Spain, Germany, Italy, and UK.
  • Project Mission Raftar (2017–18):  Goal of doubling the average speed of freight trains from 25 kmph to 50 kmph and achieving a 50% increase in passenger train speed from 50 kmph to 75 kmph in five years. 
  • But, CAG of India report noted, the plan did not result in any speed increase.
RBI's Currency and Finance Report for 2022-23: Towards a greener cleaner India:
  • To achieve dual objectives of net zero by 2070 and advanced economy status: India would have to:
  • Increase share of green energy: Primary energy consumption to 82% by 2070 and 
  • Reduce emission intensity: By 5.4% annually. 
  • Suggestions: 
  • More ambitious action: Net zero by 2050 would limit the losses from extreme weather events and decarbonization to 3% by 2049. 
  • Carbon tax: Can be effective, alongside other policy interventions.
  • Target:
  • Target: 500 GW of installed renewable energy by 2030, which includes the installation of 280 GW of solar power and 140 GW of wind power. 
Plastic Pollution:
  • 75% of all plastic ever produced has become waste.
  • 50% of all plastic produced is designed for single-use purposes.
  • Ban on single-use plastic (India): From 1st July 2022, announced by the Ministry of Environment, forest and Climate change (MoEFCC).
JUDGEMENTS/ COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION
22nd Law Commission of India: Headed by former Chief Justice Ritu Raj Awasthi has suggested three recommendations on sedition:
  • Include Kedar Nath ruling into the provision by adding the words “with a tendency to incite violence or cause public disorder”.
  • Enhancing the imprisonment for sedition to “remove an oddity.” One of the criticisms against the provision is that it leaves judges with wide discretion on sentencing.
  • To prevent misuse of the law, the report suggested including a procedural safeguard that no FIR shall be registered for sedition “unless a police officer, not below the rank of Inspector, conducts a preliminary inquiry.

DEFINITION
Superbugs/Anti-Microbial Resistance:
  • Definition: According to WHO, Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines, making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death. 
  • Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”.
Countervailing, Anti-Dumping and Safeguard Duty: 
  • Definition:    
  • Countervailing Duty: It is an additional levy/import tax that the government imposes on imports in order to protect domestic producers, by countering the negative impact of subsidised imports.
  • Anti-dumping duty: It is a protectionist tariff that a domestic government imposes on foreign imports that it believes are priced below fair market value.
  • Safeguard Duty: It is a measure used as “emergency" actions with respect to increased imports of particular products, where such imports have caused or threaten to cause serious injury to the importing Member's domestic industry.
QUOTES
Quote on Accountability:
“It is not only what we do, but also what we do not do, for which we are accountable”. - MOLIÈRE
  • Meaning: The consequences of our choices and the responsibility we hold also pertain to the things we choose not to do.
  • By acknowledging our responsibilities for both our actions and inactions, we can strive to make more informed choices and actively consider the impact of our decisions on ourselves, others, and the world around us.


Samadhaan