output themes

Preserve ecological security of India:
  • Meaning: It refers to ensuring the health, integrity, and sustainability of the country's natural environment, ecosystems, and biodiversity. 
  • It involves protecting the delicate balance between human activities and the natural world to maintain the overall well-being of both current and future generations. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – environment and climate change, biodiversity and ecosystem services, Forest conservation, India’s NDC and net zero target etc.

Grassroot activism in PRIs: 
  • Meaning: It refers to the involvement of local individuals and communities in grassroots activism within the context of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs). 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Panchayati raj (73rd and 74th AA), grassroot or participative democracy, constitution and constitutional mechanism, civil service reforms, ensuring responsibility and accountability etc.
  • Extended use: Grassroot activism in ensuing accountable government, protection of environment, forest and biodiversity etc.

Commit to PRIDE in civil services:
  • Meaning: PRIDE refers to - Public service without personal biases, Rule of law, Integrity, Devotion to duty, and Efficiency.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Civil services reforms, good governance, accountability and responsibility, probity in governance, etc.
Principle of morality, proportionality and responsibility: 
  • Meaning: The keyword signifies the ethical decision-making and behavior in various contexts, including philosophy, law, politics, and everyday life. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Government policies and regulations, Indian Constitution, Functions and Responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies, Important Aspects of Governance, Role of Civil Services in a Democracy, Social Justice, etc.
Panch Pran (5 fundamentals or 5 vows) of Amrit Kaal:
  • Meaning: The Panch Pran or the 5 fundamentals of Amrit Kaal include: The goal of developing India, Elimination of any trace of the colonial mindset, Honour and pride in our roots, Development of unity, A sense of duty among citizens.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Poverty, education, Indian Society, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duty, DPSPs, India@ developed country by 2047 or $5trillion, good governance etc.

Various laws around the world related to Data protection:
  • EU: General Data Protection Regulation or GDPR. It focuses on a comprehensive data protection law for the processing of personal data. It has been criticised for being excessively stringent, and imposing many obligations on organisations processing data. It is adopted by nearly 160 countries.  
  • USA: No comprehensive set of privacy rights or principles. Instead, there is limited sector-specific regulation. The approach towards data protection in the US is different for the public and private sectors.
  • China: Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL) - similar to the EU’s GDPR. It gives Chinese consumers the right to access, correct and delete their personal data gathered by businesses, but credibly impacts offshore data processors that deliver goods and services or analyse individuals in China. 
  • Data Security Law (DSL) focused on giving the government overreaching powers to both collect data and regulate private companies.
Challenges with government schools:
  • Survey: ‘Where are the kids? 
  • Case: Government schools in Bihar
  • Issues
  • Students rely on private tuition: Government schools in Bihar are in danger of being “replaced by cheap and grimy tuition centers.
  • Disadvantaged sections: 50% of the students were from disadvantaged groups such as SCs, STs, & OBCs and Muslims.
  • Attendance in schools: It is barely 20% and none of these schools meet the norms of the Right to Education (RTE) Act.
  • Poor Infrastructure: The report has also underlined the schools without infrastructure, missing the potential of midday meals and rampant violation of the RTE Act.
  • Positives: Social Mobility & Empowerment: About 40% of the teachers are women. The increasing representation of socially disadvantaged groups among teachers.

Key facts about New and Renewable energy in India: 
  • Electricity from non-fossil fuels: India has achieved its NDC target of 40% of the installed electricity capacity from non-fossil energy sources 9 years ahead of schedule, in 2021.
  • Solar capacity: Solar capacity in 2023 is 23 times of capacity installed in 2014.
  • Share of renewable energy (excluding large hydro) in the electricity mix: Increased from 6.4% in 2013-14 to more than 12% in 2022-23.
  • FDI in renewable energy sector: Increased by 3.7 times between 2014 to 2023.
Key facts about Telecom sector in India:
  • India has the third lowest Avg. Data Tariff (per GB).
  • India jumped to 10th rank (2020) from 47th (2018) in Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI).
  • India improved to 61st (2022) from 67th (2021) in Network Readiness Index (NRI).
  • India jumped 50 spots to 55 (June 23) from 105 (Nov 22) in Speed-test Global Index for mobile data.
  • Latest technology 5G networks have been rolled out at the fastest ever pace to enable high-speed broadband services.

Vice President’s Speech: 
  • On democracy or Parliamentary functioning: Dissent cannot be converted into protests, with dialogue and discussion being forsaken for disruption and disturbance.  The Constituent Assembly faced divisive and contentious issues, but these were always sorted out in a spirit of coordination, cooperation and collaboration.
  • On Young generation: “You must think critically, read widely, adapt consistently and widen horizons steadily”.
B. R. Ambedkar on Education: 
  • “That which does not make a man worthy, does not teach equality and morality, is not true education. True education protects humanity in the society, becomes the support of livelihood, teaches man the lesson of knowledge and equality. True education creates life in society”.

Supreme Court observation on Natural Justice: 
  • SN Mukherjee v. Union of India: The SC held that the object underlying the rules of natural justice is to prevent miscarriage of justice and secure fair play in action.
Parliamentary Standing Committee (Law and Justice) recommendations lowering minimum age to contest polls:
  • Recommendation: It has recommended reducing the age for contesting Lok Sabha and Assembly elections to 18 years (from 25 years), which is the minimum age of voting in India.
  • Observation based on: Global practices, the increasing political consciousness among young people, and the advantages of youth representation.
  • Election Commission’s View: The Commission does not favor reducing the age requirement for membership of Parliament and State Legislatures and still maintains this view.

Sympathy, empathy and apathy:  
  • Definition: Sympathy: Sympathy is when someone shares feelings of sadness for another person's misfortune. It doesn’t require sharing or understanding the feeling of others.
  • Empathy is having the ability to understand what another person experiences from their point of view and you choose to do something to help alleviate the suffering.
  • Apathy is a complete lack of feeling or concern for something or someone. It's not malicious or angry; rather, it's complete indifference.
Natural justice:
  • Definition: Natural justice which means “law of nature” can be defined as a natural sense of what is right and wrong and is synonymous with fairness.
  • The concept of natural justice though not provided in Indian Constitution but it is considered as necessary element to prevent arbitrariness and injustice towards the citizens.

Quote on Internet & Privacy: The Internet gave us access to everything; but it also gave everything access to us.”. - JAMES VEITCH
  • Meaning: The quote reflects dual nature of the internet and its impact on our lives.
  • Access to Everything: The internet has made vast amounts of information, data, entertainment, educational materials, and more, readily available to us at our fingertips.
  • Everything Access to Us: On the flip side, the internet has also brought about concerns related to privacy, security, and the potential for intrusion.