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From principle of isolation to principle of integration:
  • Meaning: The represents a shift in perspective and approach in various fields, including economics, ecology, and social sciences. It essentially reflects a move away from separation or compartmentalization and toward a recognition of the interconnectedness and interdependence of various elements or systems. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to: Aspirational districts, Vulnerable sections and their integration – LGBTQ+, Tribal people, North-East states, Women empowerment etc.
Sowing seeds of confidence: 
  • Meaning: This keyword refers means taking actions or making efforts to instill and nurture confidence or self-assurance in individuals or groups. It often refers to the process of providing support, encouragement, and positive reinforcement to help someone believe in themselves, their abilities, and their potential for success.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Economic reforms, Agriculture sectors, MSMEs, Youth and women empowerment, Tapping FDI through confidence in India's economy etc.
  • Extended use: Sowing seeds of growth, seeds of inclusiveness and principle of LiFe and sustainability etc.
From GDP centric to human centric approach:
  • Meaning: This is a term which represents a shift in values and priorities towards a more holistic and sustainable model of development. It acknowledges that economic growth should serve the well-being and happiness of people while respecting planetary boundaries and promoting social equity. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Growth vs Development, Sustainable development and inclusiveness, Economic reforms and methods of calculating GDP, etc.
Environmentally conscious and climate-resilient farming/agriculture: 
  • Meaning: This refers to practices that aims to ensure the long-term sustainability of agricultural production while minimizing its negative effects on the environment and enhancing its ability to withstand and recover from climate-related disruptions.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Sustainable agricultural practices, reducing impact of agriculture on climate change, smart agriculture, climate change, use of fertilizer and pesticides, doubling farmer’s income etc.


Step for gender sensitization and women safety:
  • Step taken by: Mumbai Auto Unions.
  • Step taken: Mumbai Auto rickshamen’s Union recently announced that it has added a women’s security feature for those travelling in shared autos to protect women in case anyone complained of misbehaviour.
Digital technology or India stack as key instrument of foreign policy:
  • Step taken by:
  • India has signed agreements with countries like Armenia, Sierra Leone, Suriname, Antigua & Barbuda and Papua New Guinea to share India Stack.
  • UPI has also been taken to international markets such as France, UAE, Singapore and Sri Lanka.
  • Throughout India’s presidency of the G20, it has played up the country’s efforts at creating global digital public infrastructure (GDPIR) – of which UPI is a key part shared by G20 members and beyond.


Key Facts related to health parameters in India:
  • Global Hunger Index (GHI), 2022: India ranked 107 among 121 countries, behind Nigeria (103) and Pakistan (99). 
  • State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World report of 2022: India is home to more than 200 million undernourished people. Disparities are evident among States.
  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): Calorie undernourishment in India has been escalating since 2017, reaching 16.3% in 2020, equivalent to the 2009 statistic.
  • NFHS-5 data: One-third of children under the age of five are stunted and underweight, while every fifth child suffers from wasting.
Waste water treatment in India:
  • According to NITI Aayog’s ‘water trading mechanism to promote reuse of treated water report’:
  • Only about 40% of waste water from urban areas in India is treated, and even that is not being reused. Even where it is reused, it is not used productively.


Prime Minister’s Speech:
  • On India’s G20 Presidency: It has sowed the seeds of confidence in the countries of the “so-called” ‘Third World’.
  • On reform of multi-groupings: International institutions need to recognize changing realities, expand their decision-making forums, relook at their priorities and ensure representation of voices that matter. 
  • The GDP-centric view of the world is now changing to a human-centric one.


Kihoto Hollohan vs Zachillhu and Others' (1992): 
  • Or simply Kihoto Hollohan case (1992): In this case, SC judgement on discretionary power available to the Speaker in deciding cases of disqualification of MPs/MLAs under 10th Schedule:
  • The decision of the Speaker or Chairman of the legislative body to disqualify a member under the Anti-Defection Law is subject to judicial review.
  • The decision to disqualify a member is final and binding until set aside by a court of law.


  • Definition: Biofortification is a process that aims to increase the nutritional value of crops by breeding or genetically modifying them to contain higher levels of essential vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. 
  • The goal of biofortification is to improve the nutritional status and health of people, especially in regions where nutrient deficiencies are prevalent.
Bhakti Movement:
  • Definition: The Bhakti Movement in India was a socio-religious reform movement that emerged around the 7th to 12th centuries CE. The movement emphasized devotion and a personal, loving relationship with a chosen deity as the means to attain spiritual salvation and break free from the cycle of birth and death (samsara).


Quote on Purpose of Law and Justise: The purpose of law is to prevent the strong always having their way”. –  OVID
  • Meaning: The quote reflects one perspective on the role and purpose of law in society
  • It suggests that the primary function of laws and the legal system is to ensure that those with power or resources do not use their advantage to oppress or exploit others. 
  • This perspective aligns with the idea of justice and fairness, where the law serves as a mechanism to maintain order, protect individual rights, and promote equality.
Quote on Perception and understanding: “It is not what you look at that matter, it’s what you see”. - HENRY DAVID THOREAU
  • Meaning: The quote emphasizes the importance of perspective and perception in understanding the world around us. 
  • This quote suggests that the significance of something is not solely determined by its surface appearance or superficial aspects but rather by how we interpret, understand, and make meaning from what we observe.
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