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From window dressing to effective governance:
  • Meaning: It implies a transformation from superficial or cosmetic practices to genuine and impactful governance.
  • Window dressing refers to the act of creating an outward appearance or impression of compliance, transparency, or effectiveness.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – civil services reforms, good governance, accountability and responsibility, government policies and schemes, evidence-based governance etc.
Women from passive recipients to architects of progress and development:
  • Meaning: It conveys a transformative vision that empowers women to take an active and leading role in shaping the progress and development of societies.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Almost all questions related to women and women’s role or women empowerment, women in economy or employment, government policies and schemes towards women etc.
Vision of Poorna Swaraj: Political, social, and economic freedom for all citizens:
  • Meaning: Poorna Swaraj advocate for complete self-rule and independence. Here, Poorna Swaraj embodies the idea of complete or full freedom for all citizens in the realms of politics, society, and the economy.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Indian Constitution (freedom and rights), Media and censorship, Sedition law, Authoritarian government and unconstitutional control of statutory bodies etc.
Farmers as “anna-daata” (food givers) and “urjadaata” (energy providers):
  • Meaning: Anna-daata (food givers): It means that everyone is dependent upon farmers directly for food.
  • Urjadaata (energy providers): Farmers provide energy resources to the world by producing energy-crops such as rice straw, broken rice, maize, bamboo, sugarcane juice and molasses.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – agriculture reforms, doubling farmer’s income, biofuels and biogas, energy security and diversification etc.

Success of Government e-marketplace (GeM):
  • In Financial Year 2022-23, Government e-marketplace (GeM) registered its highest ever Gross Merchandise Value of more than ? 2 Lakh crore.
  • A World Bank study in 2020 estimated an average of 75% cost savings via GeM and noted a significant increase in participation of sellers.
  • The Economic Survey 2021-22 noted that prices on GeM were observed to be 5% lower in comparison with other online platforms.

Key facts related to women in India:
  • Political representation: 46% of elected representatives in rural local bodies in India are women. 
  • Women in Health sector: More than 80% of nurses and midwives in India are women.
  • Loan provided to women: Around 70% of the loans under the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana have been sanctioned to women. Similarly, 80% of beneficiaries under Stand-Up India are women.
  • Women in STEM: The number of women in technical education has doubled since 2014, nearly 43% of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) graduates in India are women.
  • Women led movement: The first prominent climate action in India in the 18th century when the Bishnoi community of Rajasthan led by Amrita Devi started the ‘Chipko Movement’ to prevent unregulated logging.
  • Women led startups: About 15% of unicorn startups have at least one-woman founder. 
    • According to a study “State of Healthcare in Rural India-2023”:
  • More than 60% of people from rural areas chose to “migrate” out of their state for availing treatment for major diseases.
  • Only about 10% of rural India went to public primary healthcare facility for serious ailments.
    • Learning poverty in India:
  • Annual Status of Education Report (ASER): Nationally, less than 45% of children enrolled in Standard 5 in government or private schools can read a grade-two level text.
  • National Education Policy 2020 (NEP): It has set a target of ensuring foundational literacy and numeracy among all students by the year 2025.

Prime Minister’s Speech on Women:
  • On India: India’s “When women prosper, the world prospers”.
  • The most effective way to empower women is through a women-led development approach.
  • Women in India have been brand Ambassadors for ‘Mission LiFE -   Lifestyle for Environment’.

Supreme Court (SC) on Forest Conservation:
  • Godavarman judgment (1996): The term forest land meant all forest land, irrespective of its ownership or condition. States were required to set up district-level committees to identify and report all forests, as well as degraded and denuded forests.
  • Lafarge judgment (2011): SC issued guidelines requiring states to complete the exercise to identify forests, including dictionary-meaning forests. They also spelt out the procedure to be followed in case there was any doubt about whether an area was a forest to avoid fait accompli situations.

  • Definition: Superconductivity refers to a state in which a material offers zero, or near-zero, resistance to an electric current.
  • In theory this allows electrical energy to be transferred between two points with perfect efficiency, losing nothing to heat.
Learning Poverty:
  • Definition: It refers to the number of children who are not acquiring the minimum knowledge and skills needed to function in society.
  • World Bank definition: It means being unable to read and understand a simple text by age 10.

Quote on human ability to prevent manmade destruction: A destruction, an annihilation that only man can provoke, only man can prevent”. - ELIE WIESEL
  • Meaning: The quote highlights a profound truth about humanity's unique position and responsibility regarding destruction and prevention.
  • It emphasizes that while humans possess the power to cause immense destruction and annihilation, they also possess the agency and capability to prevent it.
Quote on Government & the Governed: “The future holds little hope for any government where the present holds no hope for the people.” - LYNDON B JOHNSON
  • Meaning: The quote reflects a significant concern about the relationship between the government and its people.
  • It suggests that if the current situation offers no hope or positive prospects for the people, then the future of the government may also be bleak.
  • It is essential for governments to be accountable, transparent, and committed to the welfare of their citizens to build a brighter future for all.
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