Vehicle for financial and social inclusion:
  • Meaning: It refers to a tool, program, or initiative that is designed to promote and enable access to financial services and opportunities for individuals or communities who are traditionally excluded or underserved.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Digitization of the process like JAM trinity, government schemes and policies, capacity building, access to formal credit (banking and business correspondents), Digital India, etc.
JAM trinity (Jan-Dhan, Aadhar, Mobile):
  • Meaning: The JAM trinity, also known as the JAM ecosystem, refers to Jan-Dhan Yojana, Aadhaar, and Mobile, a set of three interconnected initiatives to enhance financial inclusion and improve the delivery of public services to citizens.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Digital India, Financial and social inclusion, government policies and schemes, good governance, e-governance, corruption, etc.
Strengthen voice, choice and agencies of women:
  • Meaning: It signifies the importance of women empowerment and gender equity benefitting from the full participation and contributions of women, leading to more inclusive and sustainable development.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - women empowerment and women led development, gender equality and equity, SDGs and inclusive growth etc.
3-D Principle of Democracy: Debates, Discussions, and Dialogue:
  • Meaning: The 3-D Principle of Democracy, which stands for Debates, Discussions, and Dialogue, emphasizes the importance of open and constructive communication in democratic societies. These three elements are fundamental for fostering a healthy and inclusive democratic process.
  • Usage: Democracy and democratic principles, Indian Constitution, Parliament and State Legislatures, Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States, Important Aspects of Governance, Transparency and Accountability, Role of Civil Services in a Democracy, etc.

Step towards ending caste biasness in educational institutes:
  • Case: IIT, Bombay.
  • Step taken: IIT-Bombay has asked its students to refrain from asking each other’s JEE (Advanced) ranks or their GATE scores or any information that may reveal their caste or other related aspects. Asking the rank ‘could appear like an attempt to find the caste and may set the stage for discrimination’.
    • The new norms urge students to bond with each other irrespective of their caste, religion or socioeconomic status.


Leather industry in India:
  • It provides employment to approximately more than 4 million people, 40% of whom are women.
  • India is the 2nd largest exporter of leather garments, and 4th largest exporter of Leather Goods in the world.
Tiger census 2022:
  • 53 tiger reserves constitute around 3% of India's total land area.
  • Tigers in India: 75% of the world’s wild tiger population. Tiger population has increased from 2967 (2018) to 3167 (2022).
  • Maximum tiger population (states): Madhya Pradesh > Karnataka > Uttarakhand > Maharashtra.
  • Maximum tigers in tiger reserve: Corbett > Bandipur > Nagarhole > Bandhavgarh > Dudhwa.
Status of Missing Women:
  • According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) Report:
    • Status of Missing Women: More than 13 lakh girls and women went missing in the country between 2019 and 2021.
    • Among the states, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi among UTs, recorded the highest number of missing girls and women.
Issue of unplanned urbanization in India:
  • As per Niti Aayog,almost 65% of urban settlements or census towns in India have no ‘master plan’, which has led to piecemeal interventions, haphazard construction and environmental pollution.

Prime Minister’s speech:
  • On education: Our education system has a huge role in achieving the goals with which 21st century India is moving.
  • Education in the mother tongue is initiating a new form of justice for the students in India. It is also a very significant step towards social justice.
  • Equality in education means that no child is deprived of education due to place, class, region.
  • On India: The world is looking at India as a nursery of new possibilities. 
  • On Youth: Building capable youth is the biggest guarantee of building a strong nation.

    Dholakia committee (2020) recommendation on statistical system in India:
    • The strength of the national system is integrally dependent on the strength of the state statistical systems.
    • There is a need of sub-national accounts which could pave the way for state governments in pursuing and adopting a bottom-up approach, thereby strengthening the data collection capacities of the state governments. 
    • Step taken in this direction: India Statistical Strengthening Project.
      • Launched by: The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) with financial support from the World Bank.
    Need of ‘Trimurti’ to provide social security to gig workers:
    1. Dignified working conditions: It embraces two aspects: respect for the individual and respect for the work they do.
    2. Growing wage levels: It means that workers, on average, are earning higher wages or salaries compared to previous periods.
    3. Minimal income fluctuations: A stable and predictable pattern of changes in an individual's or a household's income over time.

    Census towns:
    • Definition: Census towns are the settlements that are classified as urban in the census after they have met the criteria of a:
      • Minimum 5,000 population,
      • At least 75% of the male ‘main workers’ engaged in non-agricultural pursuits, and
      • A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq km
    • Statutory towns: They are settlements notified under law by the state and UT governments concerned and have local bodies such as municipal corporations, municipalities, municipal committees.
    • Definition: In terms of Section 171 of the CGST Act, 2017, the suppliers of goods and services should pass on the benefit of any reduction in the rate of tax or the benefit of input tax credit to the recipients by way of commensurate reduction in prices.
      • The willful action of not passing on the above benefits to the recipients in the manner prescribed is known as “profiteering”.
    • Profiteering: The act or activity of making an unreasonable profit on the sale of essential goods especially during times of emergency.

    Quote on wise use of resources: He who will not economise will have to agonise”. - CONFUCIUS
    • Meaning: The quote conveys the idea that failing to manage or conserve resources wisely may lead to suffering or hardship in the future.
    • It emphasizes the importance of being prudent and economical with one's resources, whether they be financial, time, energy, or other assets.
    • The encourages individuals or societies to adopt responsible and disciplined approaches to their spending, consumption, and allocation of resources.