Innovate, produce and export to the world:
  • Meaning: It is a call for a comprehensive economic strategy. It encourages fostering innovation, creating products or services based on those innovations, and then actively engaging in international trade to expand markets and opportunities. This approach is often associated with economic growth and competitiveness on a global scale.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Agricultural reforms, Make in India, R&D and innovation, Trade and export from India, India as a developed economy by 2047 Etc.
Centre of gravity of global politics:
  • Meaning: It refers to the idea that there are certain key factors, regions, or elements in the world that hold significant influence, power, or importance in the realm of international politics.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – 21st as Asian century, shifting global politics from Western country to Asian and S. East Asia, Rise of India and China, Etc.
Fight inequality to safeguard ideals of democracy:
  • Meaning: This conveys the idea that addressing economic, social, and political inequalities is crucial for preserving and upholding the principles and values of a democratic society.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – economic inequality in society, inclusive growth, sustainable development, economic justice, Etc. 
Technocrats: Adding value to civil services:
  • Meaning: This suggests that technocrats, who are individuals with specialized expertise and knowledge in a particular field, can enhance and improve the performance of civil services or government agencies.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to refer – Generalists vs specialists view, civil services reforms, technology and its usage in good governance, transparency and accountability, Etc.


Example of regional initiative towards ‘Swachh Bharat and Waste to wealth”:
  • Example: Akshar Forum in Kamrup Metropolitan District of Assam.
  • Step taken: It is relentlessly performing the task of inculcating Sanskar & values and values of sustainable development in children.
  • The students studying here collect plastic waste every week, which is used in making items like eco-friendly bricks and key chains.
  • Here students are also taught to make products from recycling and plastic waste.
  • This awareness towards the environment at an early age will go a long way in making these children dutiful citizens of the country.
Case study on ensuring impartiality of the speaker
  • Case:
  • Step Taken: In Britain, the Speaker once elected to his/her office, resigns from the political party to which he/she belonged. In subsequent elections to the House of Commons, he/she seeks election not as a member of any political party but as ‘the Speaker seeking re-election’. This is to reflect his/her impartiality while presiding over the House.


Key facts relate to rice export and poverty in India:
  • Rice exports: India is the largest exporter of rice in the world accounting for about 40% global exports in 2022-23.
  • Poverty in India: It is hovering around 15% as per multi-dimensional poverty line of NITI Aayog.
India’s total GDP contribution in the world GDP:
  • India’s share of the global GDP has tripled from 1.1% in 1991 to 3.5% in 2023 and it has become the world’s fifth largest economy.


Vice President’s speech:
  • On Health: Growth trajectory of Bharat can be sustained and secured only when our people are healthy.
  • On India’s growth:  India is being looked upon as a problem solver for the challenges of our time. We have become agenda setters on global issues today.


Supreme court (SC) judgement on office of the speaker:
  • In Kihoto Hollohan case (1992): The Speakers/Chairmen hold a pivotal position in the scheme of Parliamentary democracy and are guardians of the rights and privileges of the House. Vestiture of power to adjudicate questions under the Tenth Schedule in them should not be considered exceptionable.
  • In Keisham Meghachandra Singh vs The Honble Speaker Manipur (2020): SC recommended that Parliament amend the Constitution to vest these powers in an independent tribunal to be headed by judges.


  • Definition: Terrorism is a complex and multifaceted concept, and there is no universally accepted definition. However, it generally refers to the use of violence, intimidation, or threats to create fear, disrupt societal order, and advance political, ideological, religious, or social objectives.
Economic Inequality:
  • Definition: Economic inequality is an umbrella term for a) income inequality or distribution of income, b) wealth inequality or distribution of wealth, and or c) consumption inequality (how the total sum of money spent by people is distributed among the spenders). 


Quote on Diversity: If we are to achieve a richer culture, we must weave one in which each diverse human gift will find a fitting place”. – Margaret Meade
  • Meaning: The quote emphasizes the importance of diversity and inclusion in creating a richer and more vibrant culture. It suggests that in order to cultivate a more enriched and dynamic society, we should ensure that every individual's unique talents, abilities, and contributions are valued and integrated.
Quote on Inequality: “A nation will not survive morally or economically when so few have so much and so many have so little”. - THOREAU BERNIE SANDERS
  • Meaning: The quote underscores the idea that a nation's well-being is dependent not only on its economic prosperity but also on the equitable distribution of resources and the moral principles that guide its actions. Extreme economic inequality, where a small percentage of the population possesses a disproportionate amount of wealth, can undermine a nation both economically and morally.