output themes


Sanghe shakti Kaliyuge (Power in this age lies in coming together):
  • Meaning: This keyword emphasizes the idea that strength and power are found when people unite, collaborate, and work together, especially in the context of the current age or era. 
  • The concept aligns with the belief that collective action, cooperation, and unity can overcome challenges and achieve common goals more effectively than individual efforts. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Centre-state and State-State cooperation, Communalism and secularism, Silos to collective efforts (civil services) International cooperation towards – environment and climate change, disaster, refugee etc.
From echo chamber to diversification of thoughts: 
  • Meaning: It underscores the idea of transition from like-minded views to actively seeking out a variety of perspectives and encouraging open dialogue. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Legislature and its functioning, Global governance, Participatory governance, inclusive growth, communalism and regionalism, ethics and essays etc.
Foot in the door strategy:
  • Meaning: This keyword is a persuasion and compliance technique used in psychology. It involves making a small initial request or asking for a minor commitment, which is more likely to be accepted, followed by a larger request or the main objective that you want the person to agree to. 
  • The idea is that once a person agrees to the small request (the "foot in the door"), they are more likely to comply with a larger request 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Political reforms, Participatory governance, Inclusive growth, Individual efforts and People’s movement (Swachh Bharat), Ethics (Behavioural change) Etc.
Youth power: Greatest force in democracy: 
  • Meaning: This keyword reflects the idea that young people have the potential to be a significant and transformative force within democratic societies. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Democracy and political participation, Make in India, Education and skill, Youth’s role, Youths' role in transition of India towards developed nation Etc.


Example of negative impact of climate change:
  • Case: Switzerland.
  • Example: Switzerland's glaciers suffered their second worst melt rate this year after record 2022 losses, shrinking their overall volume by 10% in the last 2 years, as much ice in 2 years as in the 3 decades before 1990, as per GLAMOS.
Case study of converting biodegradable waste into manure in sustainable way:
  • Case: Biswanath District in Assam.
  • Step taken: For the disposal of biodegradable waste at the household level, Assam is actively promoting pipe composting among its rural communities. Pipe composting technology is a method of converting organic waste into compost using PVC pipes.


Global Innovation Index 2023:
  • India’s rank:  It retains 40th rank out of 132 economies in the Global Innovation Index 2023 rankings.
  • Published by: The World Intellectual Property Organization. 
  • India growth trajectory: Over the past several years in the Global Innovation Index (GII), India has improved its ranking from 81 in 2015 to 40 in 2023. 
Challenges associated with elderly population in India:
  • As per the United Nations Population Fund’s India Ageing Report 2023: The population above 60 years will double from 10.5% to 20.8% by 2050.
  • Challenges: 
  • Women elderly citizens outnumber and are more vulnerable compared to their male counterparts.
  • Most States in the south reported a higher share of the elderly population than the national average in 2021, a gap that is expected to widen by 2036.  
  • Overall, more than two-fifths of the elderly are in the poorest wealth quintile - ranging from 5% in Punjab to 47% in Chhattisgarh.
  • A high proportion of the rural population is among the elderly and often economically deprived.


Prime Minister’s speech:
  • On Bhagat Singh: His sacrifice and unwavering dedication to the cause of India’s freedom continue to inspire generations. A beacon of courage, he will forever be a symbol of India's relentless fight for justice and liberty.


National commission on Farmers (NCF) recommendation on MSP:
  • Headed by: M S Swaminathan.
  • Recommendation: One of NCF’s key recommendations was to have minimum support prices (MSP) for farmers based on the cost of production plus 50% return i.e., 50% more than the weighted average cost of production. It is also known as the C2+ 50% formula.


Five eyes intelligence alliance:  
  • Definition: The ‘Five Eyes’ is a multilateral intelligence sharing network of five countries, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the U.K. and the U.S. It is both surveillance based and tracks signals intelligence (SIGINT).
Monoclonal antibodies:
  • Definition: Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory made proteins that mimic the behaviour of antibodies produced by the immune system to protect against diseases and foreign substances. Monoclonal antibodies are specifically designed to target certain antigens.


Quote on Empathy: I think we all have empathy. We may not have enough courage to display it.”. –  MAYA ANGELOU
  • Meaning: The quote highlights an important aspect of empathy and human behavior. 
  • Empathy, the ability to understand and share the feelings of others, is believed to be a fundamental trait in humans. 
  • However, whether or not empathy is displayed or acted upon can be influenced by various factors, including courage, social norms, cultural influences, and personal experiences. 
Quote on Agriculture: If agriculture goes wrong, nothing else will have a chance to go right.”. –  M S Swaminathan
  • Meaning: The quote underscores the fundamental importance of agriculture in supporting human civilization and the well-being of societies. 
  • Agriculture serves as the foundation for food production, and it has far-reaching implications for various aspects of life.