Odometer for the economic engine: People well-being:
  • Meaning: It suggests a measurement or indicator system that tracks the overall well-being and quality of life of a population in a way that goes beyond traditional economic metrics such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product). It implies that just as an odometer measures the distance travelled by a vehicle's engine, this economic odometer would measure the progress and health of a society's well-being.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - GDP calculation, Social well-being of people – health, education etc., Gross national happiness and sustainable development, environmental sustainability Etc.
Expand the arc of prosperity/peace: 
  • Meaning: It refers to the idea of extending the benefits of economic growth, stability, and peace to a wider range of regions or countries. It involves efforts to promote prosperity and peace in areas that may have historically experienced poverty, conflict, or instability.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – economic development, balanced growth, substantive justice (equality and equity), Good governance, Social inclusion, conflict resolution, etc.
Connect rather than divide:
  • Meaning: This keyword is a powerful and inclusive principle that promotes unity, cooperation, and understanding among individuals, groups, and communities. It encourages people to prioritize building bridges and fostering relationships instead of creating divisions or conflicts. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Political reforms, Communalism and regionalism, Secularism, Tolerance and equality, Global cooperation and conflict resolution, Ek bharat shresta bharat Etc.
3Is: idea, imagination and implementation: 
  • Meaning: This keyword represents a sequential and interrelated process that is often essential for bringing innovations and projects to life.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Startup and entrepreneurship, R&D, innovation and IPR regime, Gov. policies and its implementation, Atmanirbhar Bharat, Make in India, Etc.


Example of recognition of unpaid labour force of women:
  • Case: Tamil Nadu.
  • Step taken: The Magalir Urimai Thogai scheme which is a monthly cash transfer programme. It is devised not as a largesse but as an obligation to women who carry a disproportionate burden in the household.


Increasing elderly population in India:
  • As per the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) India Ageing Report 2023: At the national level, the share of the elderly (60+ years) population is projected to increase from 10% in 2021 to 15% in 2036 to around 21% in 2050.
  • By the end of the century, the elderly will constitute over 36% of the total population of the country. 
Disproportionate burden of household responsibilities on women:
  • As per the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation’s Time Use Survey (2019): Compared to men on unpaid domestic services for household members, women spend around 3 times. 


Vice President’s speech:
  • On Youth: Youth Power is the greatest force in a democracy.
  • On corruption: Corruption is a ‘killer of democracy and growth’.


Ethics committee recommendations on code of conduct of MPs:
  • Constituted in 2014 the Ethics committee recommended that: The Ethics Committee shall formulate a Code of Conduct for Members and suggest amendments or additions to the Code of Conduct from time to time.


Substantive justice:  
  • Definition: Substantive justice, also known as distributive justice, is a concept that focuses on the fair distribution of goods, resources, opportunities, and benefits within a society or among its members. 
  • It is concerned with determining how society's resources and advantages should be allocated to individuals and groups in a way that is considered morally just and equitable.
Forced or compulsory labour:
  • Definition: According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), forced or compulsory labour is “all work or service which is exacted from any person under the threat of a penalty and for which the person has not offered himself or herself voluntarily”.


Quote on Multi-disciplinary approach: If you skillfully follow the multidisciplinary path, you will never wish to come back. It would be like cutting off your hands.”. –  CHARLIE MUNGER
  • Meaning: The quote suggests that once you become proficient in multiple disciplines or fields of study, you may find it difficult to return to a more limited or specialized focus. It uses the metaphor of "cutting off your hands" to emphasize that going back to a single discipline might feel like a significant loss or limitation.