output themes

Bringing prosperity through connectivity:

  • Meaning: It refers to the idea that establishing and enhancing various forms of connectivity can contribute to economic growth, development, and overall well-being in a region or country. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – infrastructure and economic growth, connectivity through Road, Air, Communication, Rail, River/sea water, border and security challenges, PM Gati shakti and NIP etc.
Information asymmetry: 
  • Meaning: It refers to a situation in which one party involved in a transaction or negotiation possesses more or better information than the other party. 
  • This imbalance of information can significantly influence the outcome of the interaction and can lead to advantages for the party with superior knowledge.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Digital India, information asymmetry between government and the governed (citizen), doctor and patient, education, financial market and cyber-attacks etc.
Viksit villages to Viksit Bharat:
  • Meaning: This keyword signifies the importance of villages and their role in overall development of the country in India. When villages developprosperity reduced poverty demand growth economic growth India’s growth.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – rural areas and their growth, poverty and hunger, health and education, India as a developed nation by 2047, sustainable development, aspirational districts etc.
Syncing multiple entry with multiple exit: 
  • Meaning: It refers to maintaining a balance between the inflow and outflow of various economic factors, resources, and transactions. 
  • This concept is essential for ensuring the smooth functioning of economic processes and avoiding imbalances that could lead to disruptions or inefficiencies. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Economic reforms, investment in India, trade relationship, investment treaty (BIT with UK), internationalization of educational institutions, etc.


Step taken to promote circular economy:
  • Step taken: The Union government recently launched the Resource Efficiency Circular Economy Industry Coalition (RECEIC). 
  • About: It is an industry-driven initiative aimed at promoting resource efficiency and circular economy practices globally. 
  • Mission: To facilitate and foster greater company-to-company collaboration, build advanced capabilities across sectors and value chains, bring learnings from diverse and global experiences of the coalition members, and unlock on-ground private sector action to enhance resource efficiency and accelerate circular economy transition.
  • Three guiding pillars of: partnerships for impact, technology cooperation and finance for scale.
  • Significan


Research spending in India: 
  • Status of Research spending in India: India spends less than 1% of GDP on R&D, compared to more than 2% in the United States and China and more than 4% in Israel, and South Korea. 
  • Decreased spending: It had declined from 0.84% of GDP in 2008 to about 0.7% at present.
  • Coal consumption: According to International Energy Agency (IEA):
  • Largest consumers: 70% Of the world’s coal consumption could be accounted for by China and India in 2023.
  • Increased coal consumption: Global coal consumption hit a record high in 2022 and will stay near that level this year as strong growth in Asia outpaces declines in the US and Europe.
E-waste generation: 
  • According to CPCB estimates: E-waste generation in India has been more than doubled in the last five years (2017-2022).


Prime Minister’s Speech: 
  • India's development is possible only if its villages develop. India can be Viksit only with Viksit villages. 
  • “Success becomes big only when the dreams are big”.


SC in Godavarman judgment of 1996: 
  • Extended the scope of the Forest Conservation Act of 1980: 
  • Tree-felling and non-forestry activity in forests across the country be stopped. 
  • It re-defined the meaning of forests and extended protection to all areas with natural forests irrespective of their ownership.
  • It laid down that ‘forests’ will be understood by its dictionary meaning, and the provisions of the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980, shall apply to all thickly wooded areas.


  • Definition: A virtue is an excellent trait of moral character. It encompasses positive attributes, behavior, and ethical principles that guide a person's actions and interactions with others. 
  • Virtue not only deals with the rightness or wrongness of individual actions; it provides guidance to the characteristics and behaviours a good person will seek to achieve.
  • It is concerned with the whole of a person's life, rather than particular episodes or actions.
Gig Worker:
  • Definition: NITI Aayog defines 'gig workers' as those engaged in work outside of the traditional employer-employee arrangement. 
  • Gig economy: It is a free market in which individuals earn income from on-demand, short-term assignments, tasks, or jobs. 


Quote on Conservation of forest/ecosystem: “Sadly, it’s much easier to create a desert than a forest” - JAMES LOVELOCK
  • Meaning: The quote reflects the reality of how human activities and natural processes can have disparate impacts on the environment. 
  • It highlights the relative ease of degrading or damaging ecosystems, such as turning a lush forest into a barren desert, compared to restoring or creating new forests.
Quote on Inner Strength: “What lies behind you and what lies in front of you, pales in comparison to what lies inside of you.” - RALPH WALDO EMERSON
  • Meaning: It is a powerful statement about the significance of inner strength, character, and potential. It suggests that the true measure of a person's worth and capabilities comes from within themselves, rather than from external circumstances or past experiences.
  • What lies behind you: This refers to the past, including experiences, successes, failures, and any challenges faced. 
  • What lies in front of you: This represents the future, which is filled with uncertainty and possibilities. 
  • What lies inside of you: This refers to a person's inner qualities, strengths, values, beliefs, and potential. It suggests that one's character, resilience, determination, and positive attributes are more significant than external circumstances or events.
output themes