output themes


Axes of policy friction:
  • Meaning: It refers to the key points or areas where disagreements, conflicts, or challenges arise in the development or implementation of policies. In this context, "axes" suggests different dimensions or factors, and "friction" implies the tensions or difficulties that can emerge when trying to formulate, adjust, or enforce policies.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Centre-state relations (GST and compensation, finance commission and vertical division of taxes), subsidies, conflict between different schemes at centre and state level Etc.

 Strategic realignment of energy sources:

  • Meaning: It refers to a deliberate and well-planned shift in the primary sources of energy that a region, country, or organization relies on for various purposes.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – shift from non-renewable to renewable source of energy, energy security, diversification of energy sources, India’s goal of net zero emission by 2070, Climate change Etc.

 Shaping both the world’s future and future of the world:

  • Meaning: This underscores the idea that the actions and decisions of a particular individual, group, organization or country have the potential to influence not only the course of global events in the present but also to impact the prospects and well-being of future generations.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – ESG (Environment, social and governance) framework, Sustainability of actions towards climate, environment, transition towards renewable source of energy, War and conflicts, Migration of human resources, issue of refugee, Etc.

Vanguards of a resurgent Bharat:

  • Meaning: This suggests individuals or groups leading the way in the revival or resurgence of the concept of "Bharat.” The term "vanguards" indicates that these are the leaders or pioneers who are at the forefront of this resurgence, guiding and shaping the path forward.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to refer – Youth, women, scientists, start-ups and industries, farmers, civil servants, Institutions like (ISRO), Etc.


Example of irony of women’s equality, gender parity or equality paradise:
  • For 14 years in a row, Iceland has topped the World Economic Forum’s global gender gap rankings. However, women of Iceland went on a one-day strike recently to protest against gender discrimination which was also joined by the Prime Minister of Iceland.
  • Causes: Two key areas of concern remain — pay gap and gender-based violence.  two key areas of concern remain — pay gap and gender-based violence. 


Women labour force participation:
  • In the world: World Bank estimates (2022) show that the worldwide LFPR for women was 47.3% in 2022.
  • In India: Between 1990 and 2022, it has decreased from 28% to 24%.
  • In 2022-23, there has been a notable decrease of 5% in the female labour force participation rate among married women aged 25 to 49 years, with a decline from 50% in 2004-05 to 45% in 2022-23.
  • The decline in the female labour force participation rate (LFPR) is primarily concentrated within the age group of 25-29.


Vice President’s speech:
  • On Corruption: Corruption in democracy is the greatest enemy of the common man. Corruption is extremely hurtful to the common man and there is now zero accommodation for corruption.
  • On Youth: The young minds of India, are the vanguards of a resurgent Bharat!


SMiddle Income Trap:
  • Definition: The "middle income trap" is an economic concept that refers to a situation in which a country, after experiencing a period of rapid economic growth and transitioning from a low-income to a middle-income level, struggles to continue growing and reach high-income status. Countries that find themselves in this situation face various challenges and obstacles that hinder further economic development.

 Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC):

  • Definition: It is an arms control treaty administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) which entered into force in 1997 and prohibits the use of chemical weapons, and also prohibits large-scale development, production, stockpiling, or transfer of chemical weapons or their precursors, except for very limited purposes (research, medical, pharmaceutical or protective). 


Quote on India’s neighbours and bilateral relationship: You can change friends but not neighbours”. – Atal Bihari Vajpayee
  • Meaning: The quote underscores the idea that geographical proximity often necessitates a different approach to international relations, one that prioritizes dialogue and diplomacy to address issues and conflicts between neighboring
  • It's a reminder of the unique challenges and opportunities that come with being neighbors, and the importance of finding ways to manage and improve relations in this context.
Quote on risk-taking attitude for personal growth: “Take risks in your life if you win you can lead if you lose you can guide”. -  Swami Vivekananda ji 
  • Meaning: The quote encourages individuals to embrace risk-taking as a means of personal and professional development. It highlights that whether you succeed or fail, there are valuable outcomes: success can lead to leadership opportunities, and failure can provide wisdom and guidance to others. It promotes a positive and proactive approach to facing challenges in life.