output themes


Creating global public goods (GPGs) which overlaps SDGs:
  • Meaning: Global Public Goods (GPGs): GPGs are goods or services that have two key characteristics: they are non-excludable (meaning that individuals cannot be excluded from using or benefiting from them) and non-rivalrous (meaning that one person's use of the good does not diminish its availability to others). 
  • Examples of GPGs include clean air, climate stability, scientific knowledge, and disease control.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to: environment (environmental and forest conservation, climate change), disaster management (disaster resilient infrastructure), S&T (technology and knowledge sharing), etc.
Blurred dividing line between developed and developing nations: 
  • Meaning: This keyword reflects the evolving nature of global development, which has blurred the differences in terms of GDP, prosperity, reflects the evolving nature of global development.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – IR (between developed and developing nations, North vs South).
  • Extended use: There is a need of blurring the division in - Society (between urban and rural area, between men and women), polity (asymmetrical power share between different castes) etc.
Sashakt Yuva, Sashakt Rashtra:
  • Meaning: This keyword translates to "Empowered Youth, Empowered Nation" which underscores the idea that the strength and progress of a nation are closely linked to the empowerment, engagement, and development of its youth population.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Youth and demographic dividend, Human resources, Education and skill, Youth’s role in India’s as a developed nation etc.
India as a combination of 3Os (openness, opportunities and options): 
  • Meaning: Viewing India as a combination of "3Os" — openness, opportunities, and options — highlights several important aspects of the country's growth, potential, and development. By combining these "3Os," India can create a dynamic environment where people have the freedom to explore their potential, seize opportunities, and make choices that lead to personal growth and contribute to the nation's progress.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Trade and investment, China+ strategy, make in India, Invest in India, etc.


Impact of plastic pollution:
  • Case: Switzerland (Lake Geneva).
  • Impact of plastic pollution: The Lake has long been considered as a near-untouched (pristine) body of water, but new research has found that its plastic pollution levels are as high as those in the oceans. 
Access to LPG cylinder after PMUY:
  • Study: By USAID in collaboration with ASAR (Barriers to Access, Adoption, and Sustained Use of Cleaner Fuels Among Low-Income Households: An Exploratory Study from Delhi and Jharkhand, India).
  • Report: While the rapid expansion in LPG access was commendable through outreach of Prime Minister Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY), having an LPG connection did not ensure its sustained use by households. The study further found that for poorer households, the price of refilling an LPG cylinder was a major hurdle in its usage.


Impact of climate change or Bird species:
  • According to State of India’s Birds report: 60% of the studied bird species showing a decline in numbers over the past 30 years.
  • The report underscores the effects of climate change in the Himalayan region as a contributing factor to these trends.


Vice President’s Speech (Jagdeep Dhankhar):
  • On corruption: “The institution of power brokers is dead. It can never revive. Transparency and accountability are hallmark of governance & there is zero tolerance for corruption now.”
  • On Education:  Education as the only most impactful transformative mechanism to bring about societal change.


SC on Delhi Government and Centre: 
  • May 2023 Judgment: The SC held that the Lt. Governor shall be bound by the decision of Delhi government over services, apart from public order, police and land.
  • Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Bill, 2023: The Bill is passed from the Parliament which to overcome the above judgement and empowers the LG to exercise his sole discretion on several matters including those recommended by the National Capital Civil Services Authority, and the summoning, prorogation and dissolution of the Delhi Legislative Assembly. 


Global Value Chains:  
  • Definition: It refers to full range of activities (design, production, marketing, distribution and support to the final consumer, etc.) that are divided among multiple firms and workers across geographic spaces to bring a product from its conception to its end use and beyond.
Lab grown diamonds:
  • Definition: Also known as ‘synthetic/cultured diamond’,  is diamond that is produced in a controlled technological process in laboratories with either of the two methods - chemical vapour deposition (CVD) or high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) using a chemical composition. 


Quote on Failure and Learning: You may learn much more from a game you lose than from a game you win”. – J.R. CAPABLANCA
  • Meaning: The quote encapsulates the idea that failure and setbacks can offer valuable learning experiences and insights that success might not provide. 
  • This sentiment is often applied not only to games but also to various aspects of life, including education, business, and personal development.
Quote on Innovation: “It doesn’t matter how beautiful your theory is, it doesn’t matter how smart you are. If it doesn’t agree with experiment, it’s wrong”. - RICHARD FEYNMAN
  • Meaning: The quote reflects the essence of the scientific method, a fundamental approach to understanding the natural world. 
  • It highlights the importance of empirical evidence and experimental validation in evaluating scientific theories. 
  • No matter how elegant or well-constructed a theoretical idea might be, its validity ultimately depends on whether it aligns with observations and experimental results.